microscopio cabeceras

Gerardo Felix  Benito Ferrandez


917452500 - 980605




Profesor de investigacion del CSIC

Gerardo Benito, Ph.D. in Geosciences (1989) from the University of Zaragoza (Spain), was associate research fellow at the University of Arizona (1989-1992), and since 1992 a member of the research staff at the Spanish National Research Council (CSIC), holding currently a Research Professor position. His research interests are within Quaternary Geology, with emphasis in palaeohydrology and geomorphology, and particularly on the study of past and recent floods. Regarding the latter, his works have focused on flood hazards in relation to climate and environmental changes, with field sites in Europe, North and South America, and Africa. Dr. Benito is currently President of the Global Continental Palaeohydrology group of INQUA, Leader of Focus Area "Hydrological Change and Climate" in INQUA, Spanish Delegate in PAGES (Past Global Changes) and Member of the IGBP-Spain and INQUA-Spain committees. His research activity is combined with active participation as Lead Author of the IPCC Special Report on "Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation" (SREX), and of the IPCC 5th Assessment Report, WG II Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability, Chapter 3 "Freshwater Resources". (Link).



Dead Forest, Ibáñez river. Tree stamps submerged on ash from volcano Hudson. Aysén region, Patagonia (Chile).

Research Interest

Hydrology, Fluvial Geomorphology, Palaeohydrology, Palaeoflood hydrology, Flood risks, Quaternary Sciences.

Research ID: E-5456-2013
Orcid Code: 0000-0003-0724-1790



Palaeoflood sediments in the Kuiseb River, Namib Desert. Sediments show the water stage during extreme floods from which the largest floods during the last millennium were reconstructed.



Jiménez Cisneros, B.E., Oki, T., Arnell N. W., Benito, G., Cogley J. G., Döll, P., Tong Jiang, Mwakalila S.S., 2014. Chapter 3. Freshwater Resources. Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II. Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Cambridge Unv. Press. Link

Greenbaum, N., Schwartz U., Benito, G., Porat, N., Cloete, G.C. and Enzel, Y., (2014). Paleohydrology of extraordinary floods along the Swakop River, Namib Desert and paleoclimate implications. Quaternary Science Reviews. 103, 153-169. Link

Döll, P. Jiménez-Cisneros B. Oki T., Arnell N.W., Cogley J.G., Benito G., Kundzewicz Z.W., Mwakalila S., Jiang T. (2014). Integrating risks of climate change into water management. Hydrological Sciences Journal, DOI: 10.1080/02626667.2014.967250. Link

Corella J.P., Benito G., Rodriguez-Lloveras X., Brauer, A. Valero-Garcés B.L. (2014). Annually-resolved lake record of extreme hydro-meteorological events since AD 1374 in NE Iberian Peninsula. Quaternary Science Reviews 93, 77-90. Link

Medialdea, A., Thomsen, K.J., Murray, A.S., Benito, G. 2014. Reliability of equivalent-dose determination and age-models in the OSL dating of historical and modern palaeoflood sediments. Quaternary Geochronology 22, 11-24. Link

Kundzewicz, Z. W. , Kanae S., Seneviratne, S.I., Handmer, J., Nicholls, N., Peduzzi, P., Mechler R., Bouwer L.M., Arnell N., Mach K., Muir-Wood R., Brakenridge G. R., Kron W., Honda Y., Benito G., Takahashi K., Sherstyukov B., 2014. Flood risk and climate change - global and regional perspectives. Hydrological Sciences Journal, 59 (1), 1-28. Link



Salgueiro, R., Machado, M.J., Barriendos, M., Pereira, H., Benito G. 2013. Flood magnitudes in the Tagus River (Iberian Peninsula) and its stochastic relationship with daily North Atlantic Oscillation since mid-19th Century. Journal of Hydrology, 502, 191-201. Link

Bussi, G. Rodríguez X., Francés F., Benito G., Sánchez-Moya Y., Sopeña, A. 2013. Sediment yield model implementation based on check dam infill stratigraphy in a semiarid Mediterranean catchment. Hydrology and Earth System Science. Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 10, 3427-3466. Link

Grodek, T., Benito G., Botero B.A., Jacoby Y., Porat N., Haviv I., Cloete, G. Enzel Y. 2013. The last millennium largest floods in the hyperarid Kuiseb River basin, Namib Desert. Journal of Quaternary Science, 28(3) 258-270. Link


Benito G., and O’Connor J.E. (2013). Quantitative Paleoflood Hydrology. In: John F. Shroder (Editor-in-chief), Wohl, E. (Volume Editor). Treatise on Geomorphology, Vol 9, Fluvial Geomorphology, San Diego: Academic Press. p. 459-474.


Thorndycraft, V.R., Benito, G., Sánchez-Moya, Y., Sopeña, A., 2012. Bayesian age modelling applied to palaeoflood geochronologies and the investigation of Holocene flood magnitude and frequency. The Holocene, 22, 13-22. Link

Handmer, J., Y. Honda, Z.W. Kundzewicz, N. Arnell, G. Benito, J. Hatfield, I.F. Mohamed, P. Peduzzi, S. Wu, B. Sherstyukov, K. Takahashi, and Z. Yan, 2012: Changes in impacts of climate extremes: human systems and ecosystems. In: Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation [Field, C.B., V. Barros, T.F. Stocker, D. Qin, D.J. Dokken, K.L. Ebi, M.D. Mastrandrea, K.J. Mach, G.-K. Plattner, S.K. Allen, M. Tignor, and P.M. Midgley (eds.)]. A Special Report of Working Groups I and II of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, and New York, NY, USA, pp. 231-290.

Benito G, and Machado, M.J. (2012). Floods in the Iberian Peninsula. In: Kundzewicz Z.W. ed. Changes of Flood Risk in Europe IAHS Press and CRC Press/Balkema, IAHS Special Publication 10, pp.372-383.

Brázdil R., Kundzewicz Z.W., Benito G, Demarée G., Macdonald, N., Roald L.A., (2012). Historical floods in Europe in the past millennium. In: Kundzewicz Z.W. ed. Changes of Flood Risk in Europe IAHS Press and CRC Press/Balkema, IAHS Special Publication 10, pp.121-166.

J. Luterbacher, R. García-Herrera, A. R. Allan, B.G. Alvarez-Castro, G. Benito, J. Booth, U. Büntgen, D. Colombaroli, B. Davis, J. Esper, T. Felis, D. Fleitmann, D. Frank, D. Gallego, F.J. Gonzalez-Rouco, H. Goosse, T. Kiefer, M.G.Macklin, P. Montagna, L. Newman, M.J. Power, V. Rath, P. Ribera, N.Roberts, S. Silenzi, W. Tinner, B. Valero-Garces, G. van der Schrier, B.Vannière, H. Wanner, J.P. Werner, G. Willett, E. Xoplaki, C.S. Zerefos, E. Zorita, 2012. A review of 2000 years of paleoclimatic evidence in the Mediterranean. In: P. Lionello (Ed.), The Climate of the Mediterranean Region: From the Past to the Future.Elsevier, London, pp. 87-185. DOI: 10.1016/B978-0-12-416042-2.00002-1


Medialdea, A., Porat, N., Benito, G., 2011. Optically Stimulated Luminescence  characteristics of modern flash-flood deposits in small mountain catchments. Spectroscopy Letters, 44 (7-8), 530-534.  Link

Machado, M.J., Benito, G., Barriendo, M., Rodrigo, F.S., 2011. 500 years of rainfall variability and extreme hydrological events in Southeastern Spain drylands. Journal of Arid Environments 75, 1244-1253. doi: 10.1016/j.jaridenv.2011.02.002.  Link

Benito, G., Botero, B.A.,Thorndycraft, V.R., Rico, M.T., Sánchez-Moya, Y., Sopeña, A., Machado, M.J., Dahan, O. (2011). Rainfall-runoff modelling and palaeoflood hydrology applied to reconstruct centennial scale records of flooding and aquifer recharge in ungauged ephemeral rivers. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 15, 1185–1196.  Link

Benito, G., Thorndycraft, V.R., Rico, M.T., Sánchez-Moya, Y., Sopeña, A.,  Botero, B.A., Machado, M.J., Davis, M., Pérez-González, A., 2011. Hydrological response of a dryland ephemeral river to southern African climatic variability during the last millennium. Quaternary Research 75,  471–482.  Link

Benito, G. (2011). Paleoflood hydrology. In: Bobrowsky, P.T. (ed.), Encyclopedia of Natural Hazards, Springer Science+Business Media B.V. DOI 10.1007/978-1-4020-4399-4.


Benito, G. and Hudson, P. (2010). Flood hazards: The context of fluvial Geomorphology. In: I. Alcántara-Ayala and A. Goudie (Eds.). Geomorphological Hazards and Disaster Prevention. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge University Press. ISBN: 78-0-521-76925-9 – pp. 111-128.

Casas, A., Lane, S.N., Yu, D., Benito, G., (2010). A method for parameterising  roughness and topographic sub-grid scale effects in hydraulic modelling from LiDAR data. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 14, 1567–1579.  Link

Benito, G., Sancho, C., Peña, J.L., Machado, M.J., Rhodes, E.J. (2010). Large-scale karst subsidence and accelerated fluvial aggradation during MIS6 in NE Spain: Climatic and palaeohydrological implications. Quaternary Science Reviews. Reviews 29, 2694-2704.  Link

Dussaillant A, G Benito, W Buytaert, P Carling, O Link, F Espinoza (2010). Repeated glacial-lake outburst floods in Patagonia: An increasing hazard?. Natural Hazards 54, 469–48.  Link

Casas, M A, Lane, S N, Hardy, R J, Benito, G and P. J. Whiting. (2010). Reconstruction of subgrid-scale topographic variability and its effect upon the spatial structure of three-dimensional river flow, Water Resources Research. 46, W03519, doi:10.1029/2009WR007756, 2010.  Link

Benito, G., Rico M., Sánchez-Moya Y. Sopeña, Thorndycraft V. R & Barriendos, M. (2010). The impact of late Holocene climatic variability and land use change on the flood hydrology of the Guadalentín River, southeast Spain. Global and Planetary Change 70, 53–63.  Link

Benito, G., Rohde R. F., Seely, M., Kulls C., Dahan, O., Enzel, Y., Todd S., Botero, B., Grodek, T. (2010). Management of alluvial aquifers in two southern African ephemeral rivers: Implications for IWRM. Water Resources Management Water Resources Management 24, 641–667.  Link


Morin, E., Grodek, T., Dahan, O., Benito, G., Kulls, C., Jacoby, Y.Van Langenhove, G., Seely, M. and Enzel, Y. (2009). Flood routing and alluvial aquifer recharge along the ephemeral arid Kuiseb River, Namibia. Journal of Hydrology, 368, 262–275.  Link


Benito, G., Thorndycraft V.R., Rico M., Sánchez-Moya Y., Sopeña A. (2008). Palaeoflood and floodplain records from Spain: Evidence for long-term climate variability and environmental changes. Geomorphology, 101, 68–77.  Link

Uribelarrea, D. and Benito, G. (2008). Fluvial changes of the Guadalquivir river during the Holocene in Córdoba (S. Spain). Geomorphology. 100, 14-31.  Link

Rico, M., Benito, G., Díez-Herrero, A. (2008). Floods from tailings dam failures. Journal of Hazardous Materials,154, 79–87.  Link

Sancho, C., Peña, J.L., Muñoz, A., Benito, G., McDonald, E., Rhodes, E.J. and Longares, L.A. (2008). Holocene alluvial morphosedimentary record and environmental changes in the Bardenas Reales Natural Park (NE Spain). Catena. 73, 225-238.  Link

Salgueiro, A.R.; Rico, M.; Pereira, H.G.; Benito, G.  & Díez-Herrero, A. (2008). Application of correspondence analysis in the assessment of mine tailings dam breakage risk in the mediterranean region. Risk Analysis. 28, 13-23.  Link

Rico, M.; Benito, G., Salgueiro, A. R., Díez-Herrero, A. & Pereira, H. (2008). Reported tailings dam failures: A review of the European incidents in the worldwide context. Journal of Hazardous Materials 152, 846–852.  Link

Dahan, O., Tatarsky, B., Enzel, Y., Kulls, C., Seely, M., Benito, G. (2008). Dynamics of flood water infiltration and ground water recharge in hyperarid desert. Ground Water. 46 (3), 450-461.  Link

Sheffer, N.A., Rico, M., Enzel, Y., Benito, G., Grodek, T. (2008).The palaeoflood record of the Gardon river, France: A comparison with the extreme 2002 flood event. Geomorphology  98, 71–83.  Link

Thorndycraft, V., Benito, G., Gregory, K., (2008). The geomorphological and palaeohydrological response of fluvial systems to climatic, human and tectonic controls. Geomorphology 98, 1.  Link

Thorndycraft, V.R., Benito, G., Gregory, K.J. (2008), Fluvial geomorphology: A perspective on current status and methods, Geomorphology 98, 2–12.  Link

Gregory, K.J., Benito, G., Downs, P.W. (2008), Applying fluvial geomorphology to river channel management: Background for progress towards a palaeohydrology protocol. Geomorphology 98, 153–172.  Link


Sancho, C., Benito, G., Muñoz, A., Peña , J.L., Longares, L.A., McDonald, E., Rhodes, E., y Saz, M.A., 2007. Actividad aluvial durante la Pequeña Edad del Hielo en Bardenas Reales de Navarra. Geogaceta 42, 111-114


Thorndycraft, V.R., Barriendos M., Benito, G., Rico, M.T. & Casas A. (2006). The catastrophic floods of AD 1617 in Catalonia (northeast Spain) and their climatic context. Hydrological Sciences Journal 51 (5), 899-912.  Link

Benito, G. and Thorndycraft, V.R. (2006). Palaeoflood hydrology: insight into rare events and extreme flood discharges. La Houille Blanche, 5 (2), 91-96.  Link

Macklin M.G.; Benito G.; Gregory K.J.; Johnstone E.; Lewin J.; Soja, R.; Starkel, L. and Thorndycraft V.R. (2006). Past Hydrological events reflected in the Holocene fluvial history of Europe. Catena, 66 (1-2), 145-154.  Link

Brázdil, R., Kundzewicz, Z.W. and Benito G. (2006). Historical hydrology for studying flood risk in Europe. Hydrological Sciences Journal 51 (5), 739-764.  Link

Gregory, K. J.; Benito, G.; Dikau, R.; Golosov, V.; Jones A.J.J.; Macklin M.G.; Parsons, A,J.; Passmore D.G.; Poesen, J.; Starkel, L.; Walling, D.E. (2006). Past Hydrological events related to understanding Global Change: An ICSU Research Project. Catena, 66 (1-2), 2-13. Link

Casas Planes, M.A., Benito G., Thorndycraft, V.R. and Rico, M. (2006). The topographic data source of digital terrain models as a key element in the accuracy of hydraulic flood modelling. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 31, 444-456.  Link

Thorndycraft V.R. and Benito G. (2006). Late Holocene fluvial chronology of Spain: The role of climatic variability and human impact. Catena, 66 (1-2) 34-41.  Link

Thorndycraft V.R. and Benito G. (2006). The Holocene fluvial chronology of Spain: Evidence from a newly compiled radiocarbon database. Quaternary Science Reviews, 25, 223-234.  Link

Gregory, K. J.; Benito, G.; Dikau, R.; Golosov, V.; Johnstone, E., Jones A.J.J.; Macklin M.G.; Parsons, A,J.; Passmore D.G.; Poesen, J.; Starkel, L.; Thorndycraft, V.R.; Walling, D.E. (2006). Past hydrological events and Global Change  Hydrological Processes, 20, 199-204.  Link


Thorndycraft, V., Benito, G., Rico, M., Sopeña, A., Sánchez, Y and Casas, M. (2005). A long-term flood discharge record derived from slackwater flood deposits of the Llobregat River, NE Spain. Journal of Hydrology , 313 (1-2), 16-31.  Link

Benito G., Ouarda, T. B.M.JBárdossy, A. (2005). Applications of palaeoflood hydrology and historical data in flood risk analysis. Journal of Hydrology, 313 (1-2), 1-2.  Link

Boellstorff, D and Benito G. (2005). Impacts of the set-aside policy on the risk of soil erosion in central Spain. Agriculture, ecosystems and environment, 107, 231-243.  Link

Thorndycraft V.R. , Benito G., Walling D.E., Sopeña A., Sánchez-Moya Y., Rico M. & Casas-Planes A. (2005). Caesium-137 dating applied to slackwater flood deposits of the Llobregat River, NE Spain. Catena, 59, 305-318.   Link

Benito G. and Thorndycraft V.R. (2005). Palaeoflood hydrology and its role in applied hydrological sciences. Journal of Hydrology, 313 (1-2), 3-15.  Link


Thorndycraft V.R., Benito G., Rico M., Sopeña A., Sánchez-Moya Y., & Casas-Planes A. (2004). A Late Holocene Paleoflood record from slackwater flood deposits of the Llobregat River, NE Spain. Journal Geological Society of India 64(4), 549-559.  Link

Benito, G., Lang, M., Barriendos, M., Llasat, M.C., Francés, F., Ouarda, T., Thorndycraft, V., Enzel, Y., Bardossy, A., Coeur, D., Bobée, B. (2004). Use of systematic, palaeoflood and historical data for the improvement of flood risk estimation. Review of scientific  methods. Natural Hazards 31, 623–643.  Link

Benito, G., Díez-Herrero, A., de Villalta, M. (2004). Flood response to NAO and Solar Activity in the Tagus Basin (Cental Spain) over the last millennium. Climatic Change, 66, 27-28.  Link


Sheffer, N.A., Enzel, Y., Benito, G., Grodek, T., Poart, N., Lang, M., Naulet, R. and Coeur, D. (2003). Historical and palaeofloods of the Ardeche river, France. Water Resources Research, 39 (12), ESG 7-1/7-13.  Link

Uribelarrea, D.; Pérez-González, A.; Benito, G. (2003). Channel changes in the Jarama and Tagus rivers (central Spain) over the past 500 years. Quaternary Science Reviews, 22, 2209-2221.  Link

Benito, G., Sopeña, A., Sánchez, Y., Machado, M.J., Pérez González, A. (2003). Palaeoflood Record of the Tagus River (Central Spain) during the Late Pleistocene and Holocene. Quaternary Science Reviews 22, 1737-1756.  Link

Benito, G. and O’Connor J.E.  (2003). Number and size of last-glacial floods in the Columbia River valley between Pasco Basin Washington, and Portland, Oregon. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 115 (5), 624–638.  Link

Benito, G., Díez-Herrero, A., de Villalta, M. (2003). Magnitude and frequency of flooding in the Tagus river (Central Spain) over the last millennium. Climatic Change, 58, 171-192.  Link

Sheffer, N.A., Enzel, Y., Grodek, T., Waldmann N., and Benito, G. (2003) Claim of largest flood on record proves false.EOS. Transactions American Geophysical Union, 84 (12), 109. Link

Benito, G., Sánchez, Y., Sopeña, A. (2003). Sedimentology of high-stage flood deposits of the Tagus River, Central Spain. Sedimentary Geology, 157, 107-132.  Link


Gutiérrez, F., Ortí, F., Gutiérrez, M., Pérez González, A., Benito, G., Gracia, F.J., Durán, J.J. (2002). Paleosubsidence and active subsidence due to evaporite dissolution in Spain. Carbonates and evaporites, 17 (2), 121-133.  Link


Gutiérrez, F., Ortí, F., Gutiérrez, M., Pérez González, A., Benito, G., Gracia, F.J., Durán, J.J. (2001). The stratigraphic recod and activity of evaporite dissolution subsidence in Spain. Carbonates and evaporites, 16, 46-70.  Link

Rico, M. Benito, G. and Barnolas, A. (2001). Combined palaeoflood and rainfall-runoff assessment of mountain floods (Spanish Pyrenees). Journal of Hydrology, 245, 1-4, 59-72.  Link

Benito, G., Benito-Calvo, A., Gallart, F., Martín-Vide, J.P. Regües, D.and  Bladé, E. (2001). Hydrological and geomorphological criteria to evaluate the dispersion risk of waste sludge generated by the Aznalcollar mine spill (SW Spain). Environmental Geology, 40, 4/5, 417-428.  Link


Anguita, F., Babín, R., Benito, G., Gómez, D., Collado, A., Rice, J. (2000). Chasma Australe, Mars: Structural framework for a catastrophic outflow origin. Icarus 144, 302-312.  Link

Benito, G., Pérez-González, A., Gutiérrez, F. and Machado, M.J. (2000). Geomorphological and sedimentological features in Quaternary fluvial systems affeced by solution-induced subsidence (Ebro Basin, NE-Spain). Geomorphology, 33, 209-224.  Link


Gallart, F., Benito, G., Martín Vide, J.P., Benito, A., Prió, J.M., and Regüés, D. (1999). Fluvial geomorphology and hydrology in the dispersal and fate of pyrite mud particles released by the Aznalcóllar mine tailings spill. The Science of the Total Environment, 242, 13-26. Link


Benito, G. Grodek, T. and Enzel, Y. (1998). The geomorphic and hydrologic impacts of the catastrophic failure of flood-control-dams during the 1996-Biescas flood (Central Pyrennes, Spain). Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie,  42, 4, 417-437.  Link

Machado, M.J., Pérez-González, A. and Benito, G. (1998). Paleoenvironmental changes during the last 4,000 yr in the Tigray, Northern Ethiopia. Quaternary Research, 49, 312-321.  Link

Benito, G., Pérez-González, A., Gutiérrez, F. and Machado, M.J. (1998): River response to Quaternary large-scale subsidence due to evaporite solution (Gállego River, Ebro Basin, Spain). Geomorphology, 22, 243-263.  Link


Benito, G., Mediavilla, F., Fernández, M., Márquez, A., Martínez, J. and Anguita, F. (1997): Chasma Boreale, Mars: A sapping and outflow channel with a tectono-thermal origin. Icarus, 129, 528-538.  Link

Gutiérrez, M.; Sancho, C.; Benito, G.; Sirvent, J. and Desir, G. (1997). Quantitative study of piping processes in badland areas of the Ebro Basin NE Spain. Geomorphology, 20, 237-253.  Link

Sirvent, J.; Desir, G.; Gutiérrez, M; Sancho, C. y Benito, G. (1997). Erosion rates in badland areas recorded by collectors, erosion pins and profilometer techniques (Ebro Basin, NE-Spain). Geomorphology, 18, 61-75.  Link

Benito, G. (1997). Energy expenditure and geomorphic work of the cataclysmic Missoula flooding in the Columbia  River Gorge, USA. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 22, 457-472.  Link


Benito G., Machado, Mª. J. & Pérez-González, A. (1996). Climate change and flood sensitivity in Spain. Geological Society of London, Special Publication nº 115, pp. 85-08.


Benito, G.; Pérez del Campo, P.; Gutiérrez-Elorza, M and Sancho, C. (1995). Natural and human-induced sinkholes in gypsum terrain and associated environmental problems in NE Spain. Environmental Geology, 25, 156-164.  Link


Benito, G.; Machado, M.J. y Sancho, C.  (1993). Sandstone weathering processes damaging prehistoric rock paintings at the Albarracín Cultural Park, NE Spain. Environmental Geology, 22, 71-79.  Link

Baker, R.V.; Benito, G. y Rudoy, A.N. (1993). Paleohydrology of Late Pleistocene Superflooding, Altay Mountains, Siberia. Science, 259, 348-350.  Link

Benito, G.; Gutiérrez, M y Sancho, C. (1993). The influence of physico-chemical properties on erosion processes in badland areas, Ebro Basin, NE-Spain. Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie, 37 (2), 199-214.  Link


Benito, G.; Gutiérrez, M y Sancho, C.  (1992). Erosion rates in badland areas of the Central Ebro Basin, (NE-Spain). Catena, 19, 269-286.  Link


Sancho, C. y Benito, G.  (1990). Factors controlling tafoni weathering in the Ebro Basin, (NE-Spain). Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie, 34, (2), 165-177.  Link


Benito, G. y Gutiérrez, M.  (1988). Karts in gypsum and its environmental impact on the middle Ebro Basin, Spain. Environmental Geology, 12, (2), 107-111.  Link

Gutiérrez, M.; Benito, G. y Rodríguez, J. (1988). Piping in badland areas of the Middle Ebro Basin, Spain. Catena 13, 49-60.  Link

Benito, G. y Casas, M. (1988). Small-scale deformations in Quaternary deposits in the northeastern Iberian Peninsula. Géologie Mediterranéenne. Link




Terrain model obtained from mobile terrestrial laser scanning. Note the detail of river bars and flow structures around boulder obstacles. The vehicle track on which the TLS was mounted was recorded on this high detailed topographic representation.

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