microscopio cabeceras

Rafael  Zardoya San Sebastián


914111328 - 1129




Profesor de investigación del CSIC

Investigación / Research

Principales líneas de investigación / Main Research Lines:


Molecular Systematics: Understanding how biological diversity is originated is the central question in Evolutionary Biology. We are interested in determining the amount of genetic variation associated to speciation events and its relationship to morphological and behavioral differentiation. We want to establish robust phylogenetic frameworks onto which discuss morphological and behavioral adaptation, as well as the historical generation of current biogeographical patterns and the assembling of ecosystems. We are currently focused mainly on gastropod systematics but he have studied in the past phylogenetic relationships of controversial groups of fishes, amphibians, and reptiles. We are currently based our phylogenetic inferences on complete mitochondrial genome sequence data but we would like to use in the near future next-generation sequencing technologies.


Molecular Evolution: We are interested in the study of mitochondrial and nuclear sequence variation. Our research in this field includes the evolution of gene families, model selection, positive selection, the causes underlying incorrect phylogenetic inferences, etc. Although our approach is largely empirical, we are developing a strong interest in the theory of evolutionary analysis of amino acid and nucleotide sequences.




Proyectos en curso / Ongoing Projects:



Genómica comparada y de la adaptación en el estudio de la radiación en islas macaronésicas: los caracoles marinos Conus de Cabo Verde y sus conotoxinas como sistema modelo. / Comparative genomics and adaptation in the study of a radiation in Macaronesian Islands: the marine snail Conus of Cabo Verde and its conotoxins as a model system.

  Referencia / Grant: CGL2016 - 75255-C2-1-P  
  Origen /Origin: Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad, España. Ministry of Economy, Industry and Competitiveness (Madrid, Spain)
  Duración /Duration: 30/12/2016 - 29/12/2019
  Importe / Amount (€): 189 970
  Investigador principal: ZARDOYA SAN SEBASTIÁN, RAFAEL


• Entendiendo las bases moleculares de las radiaciones en islas: Estudio evolutivo de conotoxinas en caracoles marinos Africonus de Cabo Verde utilizando transcriptómica. / Understanding the molecular basis of island radiations: Evolutionary study of conotoxins in marine snails Africonus of Cape Verde using transcriptomics.

  Referencia / Grant: CGL2013-45211-C2-2-P
  Origen /Origin: Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad, España. Ministry of Economy, Industry and Competitiveness (Madrid, Spain)
  Duración /Duration: 30/01/2014 - 29/12/2016   
  Importe / Amount (€): 130 000
  Investigador principal: ZARDOYA SAN SEBASTIÁN, RAFAEL


• Mitogenomics of main gastropod lineages. 2013


• Filogenia molecular de los moluscos gasterópodos basada en genomas mitocondriales completos / Molecular phylogeny of gastropod mollusks based on complete mitochondrial genomes.

  Referencia / Grant: CGL2007 - 60954
  Origen /Origin: 
  Duración /Duration: 01/10/2007 - 31/12/2010
  Importe / Amount (€): 225 060
  Investigador principal: ZARDOYA SAN SEBASTIÁN, RAFAEL


• Phylogenetic relationships of amphibians using complete mitochondrial genomes and Rag1. 2007


• Genetic characterization of rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) populations at the National Park of Cabañeros and the State Property of Lugar Nuevo. 2005


• Identification of specific microsatellites to characterize genetic variability of endemics species of the Iberian peninsula and Canary Islands. 2004


• Intraspecific genetic structure of bigeye tuna, Thunnus obesus in the Atlantic Ocean. 2003


• Molecular systematics of Iberian opistobranchs (Mollusca: gastropoda). 2003


• Anabantoid (Pisces: Perciformes) intra- and inter-relationships: hypotheses testing using DNA sequence data. 2002


• Fisheries and population structure of Scomber spp. In the Mediterranean and South Iberian Atlantic waters. 2001


• Molecular phylogeny of Central American cichlids (Pisces: Perciformes). 2000


• Genetic characterization and spatial delimitation of insect diversity in the Madrid Community. 2000



Miembros del grupo de investigación / Research Group Members:


Michel Dominguez
Juan Esteban Uribe
Ethienne Kornobis
David Osca


More Information



Últimas publicaciones / Latest Publications:


Abalde, S., Tenorio, M.J., Afonso, C.M.L., Zardoya, R. (2017). Mitogenomic phylogeny of cone snails endemic to Senegal. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 112: 79-87.


Milá, B., Van Tassell, J.L., Calderón, J.A., Rüber, L., Zardoya, R.. (2017). Cryptic lineage divergence in marine environments: genetic differentiation at multiple spatial and temporal scales in the widespread intertidal goby Gobiosoma bosc.  Ecology and Evolution, 7 (14): 5514-5523.


Uribe, J.E., Zardoya, R. (2017). Revisiting the phylogeny of Cephalopoda using complete mitochondrial genomes. Journal of Molluscan Studies, 83 (2): 133-144.


Uribe, J.E., Puillandre, N., Zardoya, R. (2017). Beyond Conus: Phylogenetic relationships of Conidae based on complete mitochondrial genomes. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 107:142-151. 


Uribe, J.E., Williams, S.T., Templado, J., Buge, B., Zardoya, R. (2017). Phylogenetic relationships of Mediterranean and North-East Atlantic Cantharidinae and notes on Stomatellinae (Vetigastropoda: Trochidae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 107: 64-79.


Uribe, J.E., Williams, S.T., Templado, J., Abalde, S., Zardoya, R. (2017). Denser mitogenomic sampling improves resolution of the phylogeny of the superfamily Trochoidea (Gastropoda: Vetigastropoda). Journal of Molluscan Studies, 83 (1): 111-118.


Uribe, J.E., Colgan, D., Castro, L.R., Kano, Y., Zardoya, R. (2016). Phylogenetic relationships among superfamilies of Neritimorpha (Mollusca: Gastropoda). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 104: 21-31. 

Uribe, J.E., Kano, Y., Templado, J., Zardoya, R. (2016). Mitogenomics of Vetigastropoda: Insights into the evolution of pallial symmetry. Zoologica Scripta, 45 (2): 145-159. 


Osca, D., Templado, J., Zardoya, R. (2015). Caenogastropod mitogenomics. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 93: 118-128.


Cabria, M.T., Gonzalez, E.G., Gomez-Moliner, B.J., Michaux, J.R., Skumatov, D., Kranz, A., Fournier, P., Palazon, S., Zardoya, R. (2015). Patterns of genetic variation in the endangered European mink (Mustela lutreola L., 1761) Phylogenetics and Phylogeography.  BMC Evolutionary Biology, 15 (1), art. no. 141, 


Kornobis, E., Cabellos, L., Aguilar, F., Frías-López, C., Rozas, J., Marco, J., Zardoya, R. (2015). TRUFA: A user-friendly web server for de novo rna-seq analysis using cluster computing. Evolutionary Bioinformatics, 11: 97-104.


Osca, D., Irisarri, I., Todt, C., Grande, C., Zardoya, R. (2014). The complete mitochondrial genome of Scutopus ventrolineatus (Mollusca: Chaetodermomorpha) supports the Aculifera hypothesis.
BMC Evolutionary Biology, 14 (1), art. no. 197


Gonzalez, E.G., Cerón-Souza, I., Mateo, J.A., Zardoya, R. (2014). Island survivors: Population genetic structure and demography of the critically endangered giant lizard of La Gomera, Gallotia bravoana. BMC Genetics, 15 (1), art. no. 121 


D. Osca, J. Templado, and R. Zardoya, (2014). The mitochondrial genome of Ifremeria nautilei and the phylogenetic position of the enigmatic deep-sea Abyssochrysoidea (Mollusca: Gastropoda). Gene, 547: 257-266


D. San Mauro, D.J. Gower, H. Muller, S.P. Loader, R. Zardoya, R.A. Nussbaum, and M. Wilkinson, (2014). Life-history evolution and mitogenomic phylogeny of caecilian amphibians. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 73: 177-189 


Irisarri, I., Eernisse, D.J., Zardoya, R. (2014). Molecular phylogeny of Acanthochitonina (Mollusca: Polyplacophora: Chitonida): three new mitochondrial genomes, rearranged gene orders and systematics. Journal of Natural History, 48 (45-48), pp. 2825-2853. 


F. Abascal, I. Irisarri and R. Zardoya, (2014). Diversity and evolution of membrane intrinsic proteins. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA)-General Subjects, 1840: 1468-1481 


A. Agorreta, D. San Mauro, U. Schliewen, J.L. Van Tassell, M. Kovacic, R. Zardoya and L. Ruber, (2013). Molecular phylogenetics of Gobioidei and phylogenetic placement of European gobies. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 69: 619-633 


O. Rican, L. Pialek, R. Zardoya, I. Doadrio, and J. Zrzavy, (2013). Biogeography of the Mesoamerican Cichlidae (Teleostei: Heroini): colonization through the GAARlandia land bridge and early diversification. Journal of Biogeography, 40: 579-593 


E.G. Gonzalez, and R. Zardoya, (2013). Microsatellite DNA Capture from Enriched Libraries. Microsatellite. Humana Press 


F. Abascal and R. Zardoya, (2013).  Evolutionary analyses of gap junction protein families. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA)-Biomembranes, 1828: 4-14 


D. San Mauro, D.J. Gower, J.A. Cotton, R. Zardoya, M. Wilkinson, and T. Massingham, (2012). Experimental design in phylogenetics: testing predictions from expected information. Systematic Biology, 61: 661-674 


P.S. Fitze, V. Gonzalez-Jimena, L.M. San-Jose, D. San Mauro, and R. Zardoya, (2012). A new species of sand racer, Psammodromus (Squamata: Lacertidae), from the Western Iberian Peninsula Zootaxa, 3205: 41-52


I. Irisarri, D. San Mauro, F. Abascal, A. Ohler, M. Vences, and R. Zardoya, (2012). The origin of modern frogs (Neobatrachia) was accompanied by acceleration in mitochondrial and nuclear substitution rates. BMC Genomics, 13: 626 


F. Abascal, D. Posada and R. Zardoya, (2012). The evolution of the mitochondrial genetic code in arthropods revisited. Mitochondrial DNA, 23: 84-91 


F. Abascal and R. Zardoya, (2012). LRRC8 proteins share a common ancestor with pannexins, and may form hexameric channels involved in cell‐cell communication. BioEssays, 34: 551-560 






Otras publicaciones / Other Publications:


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