microscopio cabeceras

Gerardo Félix  Benito Ferrández


917452500 - 980605




Profesor de investigacion del CSIC

Investigación / Research

Ph.D. in Geosciences (1989) from the University of Zaragoza (Spain), was associate research fellow at the University of Arizona (1989-1992), and since 1992 a member of the research staff at the Spanish National Research Council (CSIC), holding currently a Research Professor position. His research interests are within Quaternary Geology, with emphasis in palaeohydrology and geomorphology, and particularly on the study of past and recent floods. Regarding the latter, his works have focused on flood hazards in relation to climate and environmental changes, with field sites in Europe, North and South America, and Africa. Dr. Benito is currently President of the Global Continental Palaeohydrology group of INQUA, Leader of Focus Area "Hydrological Change and Climate" in INQUA, Spanish Delegate in PAGES (Past Global Changes) and Member of the IGBP-Spain and INQUA-Spain committees. His research activity is combined with active participation as Lead Author of the IPCC Special Report on "Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation" (SREX), and of the IPCC 5th Assessment Report, WG II Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability, Chapter 3 "Freshwater Resources".



 Dead Forest, Ibáñez river. Tree stamps submerged on ash from volcano Hudson. Aysén region, Patagonia (Chile).

Research Interest

Hydrology, Fluvial Geomorphology, Palaeohydrology, Palaeoflood hydrology, Flood risks, Quaternary Sciences.

Research ID: E-5456-2013
Orcid Code: 0000-0003-0724-1790

Google Scholar Link


Palaeoflood sediments in the Kuiseb River, Namib Desert. Sediments show the water stage during extreme floods from which the largest floods during the last millennium were reconstructed.







Oliva, M.; Ruiz-Fernández, J.; Barriendos, M.; Benito, G.; Cuadrat, J.; M.; Domínguez-Castro, F.; García-Ruiz, J.; M.; Giralt, S.; Gómez-Ortiz, A.; Hernández, A.; López-Costas, O.; López-Moreno, J.; I.; López-Sáez, J.; A.; Martínez-Cortizas, A.; Moreno, A.; Prohom, M.; Saz, M.; A.; Serrano, E.; Tejedor, E.; Trigo, R.; Valero-Garcés, B.; Vicente-Serrano, S.M. (2018). The Little Ice Age in Iberian mountains. Earth-Science Reviews 177, 175-208.




Machado, M.J.; Medialdea, A.; Calle, M.; Rico, M.T.; Sánchez-Moya, Y.; Sopeña, A.; Benito, G., 2017. Historical palaeohydrology and landscape resilience of a Mediterranean rambla (Castellón, NE Spain): Floods and people. Quaternary Science Reviews, 171, 182-198.



Calle, M., Alho, P., Benito, G., 2017. Channel dynamics and geomorphic resilience in an ephemeral Mediterranean river affected by gravel mining. Geomorphology 285, 333-346.



Euler, T., Herget, J., Schlömer, O., Benito, G. 2017. Hydromorphological processes at submerged solitary boulder obstacles in streams. Catena, 157, 250-267.



Rodriguez‐Lloveras, X, Corella, JP, Benito G. 2016. Modelling the hydro‐sedimentary dynamics of a Mediterranean semiarid ungauged watershed beyond the instrumental period. Land Degradation & Development 28, 1506–1518. doi: 10.1002/ldr.2678.




Corella, J. P., Valero-Garcés, B.L., Vicente- Serrano S.M, Brauer A. & Benito G. (2016). Three millennia of heavy rainfalls in Western Mediterranean: frequency, seasonality and atmospheric drivers. Sci. Rep. 6, 38206; doi: 10.1038/srep38206.



Sancho, C., Calle, M., Peña-Monné, J.L., Duval, M., Oliva-Urcia, B., Pueyo, E.L., Benito, G., Moreno A. (2016). Dating the Earliest Pleistocene alluvial terrace of the Alcanadre River (Ebro Basin, NE Spain): Insights into the landscape evolution and involved processes. Quaternary International 407 (2016) 86-95.



Rodriguez-Lloveras, X., Buytaert, W., Benito, G. (2016). Land use can offset climate change induced increases in erosion in Mediterranean watersheds, Catena 143, 244-255,




Benito, G., Macklin, M.G., Panin, A., Rossato, S., Fontana, A., Jones, A.F., Machado, M.J., Matlakhova, E., Mozzi, P., Zielhofer, C. (2015). Recurring flood distribution patterns related to short-term Holocene climatic variability. Scientific reports 5, 16398.



Rodriguez-Lloveras, X., Bussi, G., Francés, F., Rodriguez-Caballero, E., Solé-Benet, A., Calle, M., Benito, G. 2015. Patterns of runoff and sediment production in response to land-use changes in an ungauged Mediterranean catchment. Journal of Hydrology 531, 1054-1066.



Calle, M., Lotsari, E., Kukko, A., Alho, P., Kaartinen, H., Rodriguez-Lloveras, X. Benito, G. (2015). Morphodynamics of an ephemeral gravel-bed stream combining Mobile Laser Scanner, hydraulic simulations and geomorphological indicators. Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie, Supplementbände Volume 59 Supplementary Issue 3 (2015), p. 33 - 57.



Gregory, K.J., Herget, J., Benito, G. (2015). Hydrological Extreme events in historic and prehistoric times. Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie, Supplementary Issues 59 (3), 1-13.



Benito, G., Brázdil, R., Herget, J., and Machado, M.J. (2015). Quantitative historical hydrology in Europe. Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 3517-3539, doi:10.5194/hess-19-3517-2015, 2015.



Benito, G., Macklin, M.G., Zielhofer, C., Jones A., and Machado, M.J. (2015). Holocene flooding and climate change in the Mediterranean. Catena 130, 13-33.



Cordier, S., Bridgeland, D., Benito, G. (2015). Research on Fluvial Archives: From diversity to multidisciplinarity. Quaternaire 26 (1). 3-11. 10.4000/quaternaire.7119.



Benito, G., Macklin, M. G., Cohen, K. M. & Herget, J. Past hydrological extreme events in a changing climate. Catena 130, 1-2, doi: (2015).



Bodoque, J.M., Díez-Herrero, A., Eguibar, M.A., Benito, G.,Ruiz-Villanueva, V, Ballesteros-Cánovas, J.A. (2015). Challenges in paleoflood hydrology applied to risk analysis in mountainous watersheds - A review. Journal of Hydrology 529, 449-465. DOI:


Jones A. Macklin, M.G., and Benito, G. (2015). Meta-analysis of Holocene fluvial sedimentary archives: a methodological primer. Catena 130, 3-12. 10.1016/j.catena.2014.11.018.



Machado, M.J. Botero B.A., López J., Francés F., Díez-Herrero A., Benito G. (2015). Flood frequency analysis of historical flood data under stationary and non-stationary modelling. Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 2561-2576.



Döll, P. Jiménez-Cisneros B. Oki T., Arnell N.W., Cogley J.G., Benito G., Kundzewicz Z.W., Mwakalila S., Jiang T. (2015). Integrating risks of climate change into water management. Hydrological Sciences Journal, 60 (1), 4-13. 




Jiménez Cisneros, B.E., Oki, T., Arnell N. W., Benito, G., Cogley J. G., Döll, P., Tong Jiang, Mwakalila S.S., 2014. Chapter 3. Freshwater Resources. Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II. Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Cambridge Unv. Press.


Greenbaum, N., Schwartz U., Benito, G., Porat, N., Cloete, G.C. and Enzel, Y., (2014). Paleohydrology of extraordinary floods along the Swakop River, Namib Desert and paleoclimate implications. Quaternary Science Reviews. 103, 153-169.


Corella J.P., Benito G., Rodriguez-Lloveras X., Brauer, A. Valero-Garcés B.L. (2014). Annually-resolved lake record of extreme hydro-meteorological events since AD 1374 in NE Iberian Peninsula. Quaternary Science Reviews 93, 77-90.


Medialdea, A., Thomsen, K.J., Murray, A.S., Benito, G. 2014. Reliability of equivalent-dose determination and age-models in the OSL dating of historical and modern palaeoflood sediments. Quaternary Geochronology 22, 11-24.


Kundzewicz, Z. W. , Kanae S., Seneviratne, S.I., Handmer, J., Nicholls, N., Peduzzi, P., Mechler R., Bouwer L.M., Arnell N., Mach K., Muir-Wood R., Brakenridge G. R., Kron W., Honda Y., Benito G., Takahashi K., Sherstyukov B., 2014. Flood risk and climate change - global and regional perspectives. Hydrological Sciences Journal, 59 (1), 1-28.




Salgueiro, R., Machado, M.J., Barriendos, M., Pereira, H., Benito G. 2013. Flood magnitudes in the Tagus River (Iberian Peninsula) and its stochastic relationship with daily North Atlantic Oscillation since mid-19th Century. Journal of Hydrology, 502, 191-201.


Bussi, G. Rodríguez X., Francés F., Benito G., Sánchez-Moya Y., Sopeña, A. 2013. Sediment yield model implementation based on check dam infill stratigraphy in a semiarid Mediterranean catchment. Hydrology and Earth System Science. Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 10, 3427-3466.


Grodek, T., Benito G., Botero B.A., Jacoby Y., Porat N., Haviv I., Cloete, G. Enzel Y. 2013. The last millennium largest floods in the hyperarid Kuiseb River basin, Namib Desert. Journal of Quaternary Science, 28(3) 258-270.



Benito G., and O’Connor J.E. (2013). Quantitative Paleoflood Hydrology. In: John F. Shroder (Editor-in-chief), Wohl, E. (Volume Editor). Treatise on Geomorphology, Vol 9, Fluvial Geomorphology, San Diego: Academic Press. p. 459-474.


Thorndycraft, V.R., Benito, G., Sánchez-Moya, Y., Sopeña, A., 2012. Bayesian age modelling applied to palaeoflood geochronologies and the investigation of Holocene flood magnitude and frequency. The Holocene, 22, 13-22. Link

Handmer, J., Y. Honda, Z.W. Kundzewicz, N. Arnell, G. Benito, J. Hatfield, I.F. Mohamed, P. Peduzzi, S. Wu, B. Sherstyukov, K. Takahashi, and Z. Yan, 2012: Changes in impacts of climate extremes: human systems and ecosystems. In: Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation [Field, C.B., V. Barros, T.F. Stocker, D. Qin, D.J. Dokken, K.L. Ebi, M.D. Mastrandrea, K.J. Mach, G.-K. Plattner, S.K. Allen, M. Tignor, and P.M. Midgley (eds.)]. A Special Report of Working Groups I and II of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, and New York, NY, USA, pp. 231-290.

Benito G, and Machado, M.J. (2012). Floods in the Iberian Peninsula. In: Kundzewicz Z.W. ed. Changes of Flood Risk in Europe IAHS Press and CRC Press/Balkema, IAHS Special Publication 10, pp.372-383.

Brázdil R., Kundzewicz Z.W., Benito G, Demarée G., Macdonald, N., Roald L.A., (2012). Historical floods in Europe in the past millennium. In: Kundzewicz Z.W. ed. Changes of Flood Risk in Europe IAHS Press and CRC Press/Balkema, IAHS Special Publication 10, pp.121-166.

J. Luterbacher, R. García-Herrera, A. R. Allan, B.G. Alvarez-Castro, G. Benito, J. Booth, U. Büntgen, D. Colombaroli, B. Davis, J. Esper, T. Felis, D. Fleitmann, D. Frank, D. Gallego, F.J. Gonzalez-Rouco, H. Goosse, T. Kiefer, M.G.Macklin, P. Montagna, L. Newman, M.J. Power, V. Rath, P. Ribera, N.Roberts, S. Silenzi, W. Tinner, B. Valero-Garces, G. van der Schrier, B.Vannière, H. Wanner, J.P. Werner, G. Willett, E. Xoplaki, C.S. Zerefos, E. Zorita, 2012. A review of 2000 years of paleoclimatic evidence in the Mediterranean. In: P. Lionello (Ed.), The Climate of the Mediterranean Region: From the Past to the Future.Elsevier, London, pp. 87-185. DOI: 10.1016/B978-0-12-416042-2.00002-1


Medialdea, A., Porat, N., Benito, G., 2011. Optically Stimulated Luminescence  characteristics of modern flash-flood deposits in small mountain catchments. Spectroscopy Letters, 44 (7-8), 530-534.  Link

Machado, M.J., Benito, G., Barriendo, M., Rodrigo, F.S., 2011. 500 years of rainfall variability and extreme hydrological events in Southeastern Spain drylands. Journal of Arid Environments 75, 1244-1253. doi: 10.1016/j.jaridenv.2011.02.002.  Link

Benito, G., Botero, B.A.,Thorndycraft, V.R., Rico, M.T., Sánchez-Moya, Y., Sopeña, A., Machado, M.J., Dahan, O. (2011). Rainfall-runoff modelling and palaeoflood hydrology applied to reconstruct centennial scale records of flooding and aquifer recharge in ungauged ephemeral rivers. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 15, 1185–1196.  Link

Benito, G., Thorndycraft, V.R., Rico, M.T., Sánchez-Moya, Y., Sopeña, A.,  Botero, B.A., Machado, M.J., Davis, M., Pérez-González, A., 2011. Hydrological response of a dryland ephemeral river to southern African climatic variability during the last millennium. Quaternary Research 75,  471–482.  Link

Benito, G. (2011). Paleoflood hydrology. In: Bobrowsky, P.T. (ed.), Encyclopedia of Natural Hazards, Springer Science+Business Media B.V. DOI 10.1007/978-1-4020-4399-4.


Benito, G. and Hudson, P. (2010). Flood hazards: The context of fluvial Geomorphology. In: I. Alcántara-Ayala and A. Goudie (Eds.). Geomorphological Hazards and Disaster Prevention. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge University Press. ISBN: 78-0-521-76925-9 – pp. 111-128.

Casas, A., Lane, S.N., Yu, D., Benito, G., (2010). A method for parameterising  roughness and topographic sub-grid scale effects in hydraulic modelling from LiDAR data. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 14, 1567–1579.  Link

Benito, G., Sancho, C., Peña, J.L., Machado, M.J., Rhodes, E.J. (2010). Large-scale karst subsidence and accelerated fluvial aggradation during MIS6 in NE Spain: Climatic and palaeohydrological implications. Quaternary Science Reviews. Reviews 29, 2694-2704.  Link

Dussaillant A, G Benito, W Buytaert, P Carling, O Link, F Espinoza (2010). Repeated glacial-lake outburst floods in Patagonia: An increasing hazard?. Natural Hazards 54, 469–48.  Link

Casas, M A, Lane, S N, Hardy, R J, Benito, G and P. J. Whiting. (2010). Reconstruction of subgrid-scale topographic variability and its effect upon the spatial structure of three-dimensional river flow, Water Resources Research. 46, W03519, doi:10.1029/2009WR007756, 2010.  Link

Benito, G., Rico M., Sánchez-Moya Y. Sopeña, Thorndycraft V. R & Barriendos, M. (2010). The impact of late Holocene climatic variability and land use change on the flood hydrology of the Guadalentín River, southeast Spain. Global and Planetary Change 70, 53–63.  Link

Benito, G., Rohde R. F., Seely, M., Kulls C., Dahan, O., Enzel, Y., Todd S., Botero, B., Grodek, T. (2010). Management of alluvial aquifers in two southern African ephemeral rivers: Implications for IWRM. Water Resources Management Water Resources Management 24, 641–667.  Link




Terrain model obtained from mobile terrestrial laser scanning. Note the detail of river bars and flow structures around boulder obstacles. The vehicle track on which the TLS was mounted was recorded on this high detailed topographic representation.




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