exhibition MNCN

Van der Made Jan

Investigación

 

 

 

Initially, I mainly studied the Suoidea (= pigs and peccaries) from Europe, Asia and Africa, and from the Eocene till recent, but also the contemporary ungulates, primarily Bovidae, Cervidae, Tragulidae and Anthracotheriidae. Since 1993, I am the coordinator for the Suoidea of the NOW database.

            When I became a member of the Atapuerca team, my research shifted to the ungulates of the Pleistocene. This is also a shift in the approach, since prehistoric research is centred on particular sites which are often excavated during many years. With the idea of synergy, I take or took part in numerous other projects on prehistoric sites, foremost the Algerian sites of Ain Hanech, Ain Boucherit, El Kherba and Tighenif, but also Bilzingsleben and Neumark Nord (Germany), Khoramabad Valley (Iran), Armenia, Morocco, etc.

            I am much interested in the effects

of climatic and geographic change on the fauna. A special case is insular environment. I was a student of P.Y. Sondaar, who was a specialist in insular ecology and evolution, and belong to his “school”.

            In the following sections, my papers are listed which are dedicated to or contribute to the different categories. The same paper may appear in more than one section. Most of the links are to websites of publishers. If you do not have access, please write me an e-mail.

1) Research by sites: palaeontology and the relationship with human prehistory

2) Evolution, systematics and biogeography of Suoidea and other groups

3) Biogeography, biostratigraphy, "the history of nature", extinction

4) Insular ecology and evolution

 

 

1) Research by sites: palaeontology and the relationship with human prehistory

 

Atapuerca

Since 1995, I participate in the Atapuerca project, where it is my task to study the ungulates.

The main sites from which I studied the ungulates are Gran Dolina, Galería and Sima del Elefante. There are but few fossils from Penal and Cueva del Fantasma is a new site. Sima de los Huesos is an important site, but does not have ungulates. The open air sites (Valle de las Orquídeas, El Hundidero, Hotel California and Fuente Mudarra) do not have fauna. Other sites, like El Mirador, have mainly Holocene and the fauna is mainly domestic.

 

Sierra de Atapuerca

The different localities in the Sierra de Atapuerca.

 

Sima del Elefante photos scheme

Mosaic photograph of Sima del Elefante in 2006 before excavation below the base level of the railway trench (left), stratigraphic scheme of the upper part (middle), and excavated part below the base level of the railway trench in 2013 (right).

 

 

Atapuerca biostratigraphy 1

The distribution of the ungulate species in the different sites and levels at Atapuerca (adapted from Van der Made, 2013).

 

Atapuerca biostratigrafie 2

The temporal distribution of the ungulates from the different sites and levels at Atapuerca (adapted from Van der Made, 2013).

 

TD8 Mauricio Antón

Reconstruction of the landscape of Atapuerca TD8 in autumn (brown leaves) with Hippopotamus (today a tropical animal), Stephanorhinus etruscus (a rhinoceros) and Dama vallonnetensis (a primitive species of fallow deer) by Mauricio Antón (Bermúdez de Castro et al., 1999).

 

Atapuerca TD6 - M Antón

Reconstruction of Atapuerca TD6 by Mauricio Antón with Eucladoceros aff. giulii (a large species of deer), the bison Bison voigtstedtensis and the oldest Sus scrofa  (wild boar) of Europe (Bermúdez de Castro et al., 1999).

 

 

Algeria: Ain Boucherit, Ain Hanech, El Kherba & Tighennif

Since 2002, I participate in a project, lead by Mohamed Sahnouni, on localities near El Eulma and later also Tighennif. The localities Ain Boucherit, Ain Hanech, El Kherba and others are in a small valley, the Oued Boucherit and form a magnetostratigraphically datedsequence covering the time from >3 Ma to <1.7 Ma. Tighennif is a younger, late Early Pleistocene locality. The main objective of the project is prehistory and my task is the study of the large mammals. One of our most relevant results is the excavation of stone tools in Ain Boucherit, which date to 2.44 Ma.

 

Ain Boucherit

Ain Boucherit: the fossiliferous level at the top of member P and the excavation in member R of the Ain Hanech Fm.

 

El Kherba

El Kherba with Ain Boucherit in the background. Photograph by Jordi Mestre.

 

Ain Boucherit Ain Hanech - Biostratigraphy

Biostratigraphy of the localities in the Oued Boucherit (Van der Made et al., 2021).

 

Kolpochoerus Ain Hanech

Kolpochoerus from Ain Hanech compared with those of other localities (Sahnouni & Van der Made, 2009).

 

Giant tortoise - foto Jordi Mestre

Giant tortoise in the Oued Boucherit (photograph Jordi Mestre; Van der Made, 2008).

 

 

 

Morocco: area of Ain Beni Matar & Jerada

 

 

 

 

Bilzingsleben & Neumark Nord (Germany)

In 1997, I joined the team that works on Bilzingsleben and Neumark Nord (Germany), led by Dietrich Mania. It was my task to study the Rhinocerotidae and Cervidae from Bilzingsleben and the Rhinocerotidae and giant deer from Neumark Nord 1. Bilzingsleben is a Middle Pleistocene site (MIS11, about 400 ka) with quite a number, but usually small, human remains and abundant fauna and lithics. Neumark Nord 1 (MIS7) was a site in a lignite mine, which is now closed. During the Pleistocene, it was small interglacial lake. Many articulated skeletons of deer, elephants, auerochsen and even of a rhinoceros are preserved. The nearby basins Neumark Nord 2 and 3 are younger.

NN foto

View of the Neumark Nord lignite mine when it was still active.

 

NN map

Map of the Neumark Nord 1 lake. From Van der Made (2010).

 

Neumark Nord sectie

Section of Neumark Nord (from Mania, 2004, Praehistoria Thuringica, 10: 26-42). There is a controversy whether the fossils and archaeology of Neumark Nord 1 date to the Eemian (MIS5) or to the intra Saalian warm period (MIS7). In Neumark Nord 2 the Blake geomagnetic event (119-126 ka) has been detected. In the section, it can be seen that part of the sediment fill (green colour) of the Neumark Nord 1 lake ("Becken NN 1") is older than that of the Neumark Nord 2 lake ("Becken NN2") and thus older than the Blake Event and that more likely dates to MIS7. As the excavation of the mine advanced, many parallel profiles were drawn by prof. Mania, documenting the relative ages of the basin fills.

 

Bilzingsleben - klok

Fragment of the tibia of an elephant with regular engravings from Bilzingsleben (drawing by Mania, Praehistoria Thuringica, 1: 30-80). The pattern seems intentional.

 

Bilzingsleben map larger skeletal elements

Bilzingsleben is a site in a single horizon and has been excavated in a large extension. Each square is 1.5 x 1.5 m. The dots represent the finds of large skeletal elements. (From Mania, 1997, Praehistoria Thuringica, 1: 30-80.)

 

Bilzingsleben opgraving

Bilzingsleben: fossil bones in fine grained sediments. Though there may be areas in the site where fossils have been moved a little by water, the claim that all the site is affected by resedimentation are a bridge too far.

 

  • Made, J. van der, 2010. The rhinos from the Middle Pleistocene of Neumark Nord (Saxony-Anhalt). Veröffentlichungen des Landesamtes für Archäologie, 62: 432-527.
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  • Made, J. van der, 2010. Biostratigraphy - "Large Mammals". In: D. Höhne & W. Schwarz (eds) "Elefantentreich - Eine Fossilwelt in Europa". Landesamt für Denkmalpflege und Archälogie Sachsen-Anhalt & Landesmuseum für Vorgeschichte, Halle: 82-92.
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  • Made, J. van der, 2010. Giant deer. In: D. Höhne & W. Schwarz (eds) "Elefantentreich - Eine Fossilwelt in Europa". Landesamt für Denkmalpflege und Archälogie Sachsen-Anhalt & Landesmuseum für Vorgeschichte, Halle: 408-412.
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  • Made, J. van der & R. Grube, 2010. The rhinoceroses from Neumark-Nord and their nutrition. In: D. Höhne & W. Schwarz (eds) "Elefantentreich - Eine Fossilwelt in Europa". Landesamt für Denkmalpflege und Archälogie Sachsen-Anhalt & Landesmuseum für Vorgeschichte, Halle: 383-394.
Diet rhinos NN

Sampling plant remains from a molar of Stephanorhinus kirchbergensis from Neumark Nord (Van der Made & Grube, 2010). These plant remains were part of the last meals of this individual.

 

 

 

Iran: Kaldar Cave and other sites near Khorramabad

 

 

 

Quibas

 

 

Madrid - Manzanares valley

Haplodoceros and Homo by Mauricio Antón

Homo neanderthalensis and Haploidoceros mediterraneus from the locality Preresa in the Manzanares valley. Reconstruction by Mauricio Antón.

 

 

 

Camp dels Ninots

 

Tapirus arvenensis CN

Tapirus arvernensis from Camp dels Ninots. Photograph by Gerar Campeny.

 

 

 

Vathera

 

Vathera, a locality on Lesbos (Greece), was a small fossiliferous lens with an extension of little more than one square metre. Fossils were recovered when a track was constructed. In 1997 the fossiliferous site was located and it was excavated from 1998 until 2000, when it was exhausted. It yielded about 550 fossils. The age is estimated to be a little more than 2 Ma. It is called the F-site to differentiate it from various other fossil occurrences in the area, which yielded fewer fossils. The recovery of good fossils of Paradolichopithecus arvernensis led in 1999 to the organisation of a workshop on Lesbos.

Vathera

View of Vathera (F-site) from a distance and of the excavation, showing the excellent preservation.

 

Paradolichopithecus Vathera

 

Two mandibles of Paradolichopithecus arvernensis from Vathera. The left one was my first find when starting to excavate.

 

 

 

Others

 

 

Arago

Representation of different taxa in the stratigraphic units of the Caune de l’Arago, expressed as percentages of the total of determined bones and teeth per stratigraphic unit (Van der Made, 2015).

 

 

 

2) Evolution, systematics and biogeography of Suoidea and other groups

 

Suoidea

Range chart II

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A range chart of the west Eurasian Suoidea (based on Van der Made, 2022).

Bunolistriodon Gracanica

The evolution of the first upper incisor in Bunolistriodon. Adapted from Van der Made (2020).

 

Koskobilo fig 5

Size changes in Sus scrofa (Gómez-Olivencia et al., 2020).

 

TD8 Sus hippo

The temporal distribution of the Quaternary species of Sus and Hippopotamus in Europe (Van der Made et al., 2017).

 

Sivachoerus P4i M3i

Nyanzachoerus kanamensis is a species of African pigs with narrow premolars, while Sivachoerus prior is an Indian species with wide premolars, as can be seen in the figure. It is common practice to place many African species in the genus Nyanzachoerus, however, they are morphologically more similar and related to Sivachoerus prior than to N. kanamensis. As a consequence, they should be placed in Sivachoerus. The lineage Sivachoerus syrticus-pattersoni shows size decrease of the P4 and the increase in length of the M3 with time. This lineage differs from the S. australis lineage, which at an early stage became larger with longer M3.

 

Microstonyx I2s

The evolutionary elongation, as indicated by the index 100DMD/DLL, of the second upper incisor of Hippopotamodon (= Microstonyx) is an adaptation to rooting and is of taxonomic and stratigraphic interest (Van der Made et al., 2013).

 

Phylogeny Hyotheriinae

Phylogeny of the Hyotheriinae (Van der Made, 2010). The colors of the Hyotherium lineage are the same as in the following figure.

 

Hyohterium M23 size increase

The increase in size is one of the main features in the Hyotherium lineage, here seen as an incrase in the width of the first lobes (DTa) of the first and second lower molar (Van der Made, 2010). The colors are the same as in the previous figure.

 

Suoidea I2s

The evolutionary elongation, as indicated by the index 100 DMD/DLL, is a progressive adaptation to rooting in the Suoidea (Van der Made, 2010).

 

 

Hyotherium insularis - Oschiri

 Hyotherium? insularis from Oschiri is an endemic insular species. Like many insular species, it had shortened distal limb bones, as can be seen here in tis comparison of its first phalanx to that of other species of Suoidea.

Phylogeny Tetraconodontinae

The phylogeny of the Tetraconodontinae (Van der Made, 1999).

 

Phylogeny Listriodontinae - Van der Made 1997

Phylogeny of the Listriodontinae (Van der Made, 1997).

 

Rangechart European Suoidea

Range chart of the European Suoidea (Van der Made, 1990).

 

Hippopotamoidea

Biogeography of Hippopotamus after Van der Made et al. (2017)

Biogeography of Hippopotamus after Van der Made et al. (2017).

 

 

Tragulidae

  • Made, J. van der, 1996. Pre-Pleistocene land mammals from Crete. D. S. Reese (ed.): The Pleistocene and Holocene Fauna of Crete and its First Settlers. Monographs in World Archaeology, 28: 69-79.

 

Cervidae

 

Megaloceros matritensis by Mauricio Antón

Megaloceros matritensis by Mauricio Antón.

 

CN Megaloceros

Megaloceros from Cueva Negra. After Walker et al. (2020).

 

Haploidoceros - Mauricio Antón

 

Haploidoceros mediterraneus reconstruction by Mauricio Antón (Van der Made & Mazo, 2014).

 

 

Bovidae

Alephis CN

One of the Alephis  skeletons in the excavation at Camp dels Ninots (photograph Gerard Campeny) and reconstruction (Raúl Campuzano).

Oued el Hai - Bos

Bos primigenius evolved smaller, shorter and more robust metacarpals. This happened in Europe as well as in North Africa. Bos primigenius from Oued el Haï had already robust metacarpals, but they were still large. (From Aouraghe et al., 2021.) 

ranch chart Aragonian Bovidae

Range chart of the first Bovidae (Van der Made, 2012).

 

Alephis

Alephis from Camp dels Ninots. Photograph by Gerard Campeny.

 

 

Giraffidae

 

 

Camelidae

Paracamelus by Mauricio Antón

Paracamelus by Mauricio Antón.

 

 

Rhinocerotidae

Rhinos Neumark Nord

The skulls of three species of rhinoceros from Neumark Nord (from left to right): Coelodonta antiquitatis, Stephanorhinus hemitoechus, and Stephanorhinus kirchbergensis (Van der Made, 2010).

  • Ceratotherium

Ceratotherium simum with short and robust metapodials replaced C. mauritanicum with long and gracile metapodials in North Africa during the Late Pleistocene. Most of the many North African localities with Ceratotherium do not have material that allows a reliable identification of the species. The robust second metacarpal from Oued el Haï shows that it is one of the oldest North African C. simum. (From Aouraghe et al., 2021).

Range chart rhinos

The temporal distribution of the western European species of Rhinocerotidae (Van der Made & Grube, 2010).

 

Equidae

Equus altidens Mauricio Antón

Reconstruction of Equus altidens in the landscape of Atapuerca TD6 by Mauricio Antón (Bermúdez de Castro et al., 1999).

 

 

Hipparion rangechart

Temporal distribution of the last hipparions (from Van der Made et al., 2022).

Equidae - Sahnouni ea 2018

The temporal distribution of the African species of Equus (Sahnouni et al., 2018).

 

Equus Mc TD8

Biometrics of the metacarpal of the Equus altidens - E. petralonensis - E. hydruntinus lineage compared to other species (Van der Made et al., 2017).

 

Tapiridae

Tapirus

The distribution of the Neogene and Quaternary Tapiridae (from Van der Made, 2010).

 

 

 

Tubulidentata

 

Phylogeny Tubulidentata

The phylogeny of the Tubulidentata (Van der Made, 2003).

 

Proboscidea

Mazo & VdM - Gomphotherium-Tetralophodon

The transition of Gomphoterium to Tetralophodon in the Iberian Peninsula (Mazo & Van der Made, 2012).

 

 

Primates

Species richness Cercopithecoidea Bovidae Africa

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Species richness of Bovidae and Cercopithecoidea in Africa. From Van der Made, 2014.

 

 

Dryopithecus Pliopithecus

Right M2 from Hostalets (A) and San Quirze (B), the first assigned to Dryopithecus and the second to Pliopithecus (Van der Made & Ribot, 1999; Harrison et al., 2002). These specimens were collected in the 1920-ties by the aficionado M. Guérin, later they passed on to the Museu i Laboratori de Geologia del Seminari in Barcelona. When studying the fossil pigs from these localities in 1991, I recognized that these specimens are no Suidae, but primates. These are the first Miocene primate fossils found in Spain after a Dryopithecus specimen Seu d'Urgell, described y Vidal in 1913, and are the first from the Vallès-Penedès Basin. At present, this basin is where most Miocene primates from Europe have been found.

 

 

Carnivora

Crocuta CN

Crocuta from Cueva Negra, one of the oldest occurrences in Europe (Walker et al., 2020).

 

Evolution Canis

The size increase in the Wolf lineage as seen in the increase in length of the lower carnassial (Van der Made, 2010).

 

 

 

3) Biogeography, biostratigraphy,  "the history of nature", extinction

 Last hipparions

The last hipparions started to go extinct after about 2.5 Ma. This happened first in the North, while near to the equator they remained diverse and went extinct much later. A similar pattern of extinction is observed in many other groups. The radiation of the Bovidae in Africa does not seem to have been at the cost of the hipparions. The decline and extction of the hipparions happened against a backfround of decreasing atmospheric CO2 and global temperature. There is no evidence that the spread of C4 grasses (which is related to decreasing CO2) affected the hipparions. because, like Equus, they fed on the available vegetation: C4 grasses near the equator and C3 plants at higher latitudes. (From Van der Made et al., 2022.)

 

Tabla cronoestratigrafica Cuaternario

 Chronostratigraphic chart of the Quaternary (Silva et al., 2021).

Rangechart Gracanica

Suoidea and correlation (Van der Made, 2020). The genus Choeromorus is indicated on the left and the grades of evolution are well seen in the length of the M3 (see below). There are similar changes in other lineages (see also Bunolistriodon in the Suoidea section). Using the evolution of different lineages, the localities can be ordered in an age sequence. MN units, as they are currently applied, appear to be diachronic: compare colums on the left (Spain) and right (Germany and Austria). The grades of evolution allow a correlation from Spain across Europe to Anatolia and, unlike the MN units, are not in contradiction with other means to estimate the ages of the localities.

 

Choeromorus M3i

The increase in length (DAP) in the M3 in Choeromorus (= Taucanamo) (Van der Made, 2020). The first four species form an anagenetic lineage, the fifth species is an offshoot of this lineage. There are also morphological changes, but the increase in length is a very clear trend that can described by measurements.

Meg matritensis range chart M3 antler

Material previously assigned to Megaloceros savini led to an overestimation of the ages of the terraces of the Mananares river, which became apparent when ESR dates for these terraces became available. The recognition of these fossils as a distinct species, Megaloceros matritensis, solved the problem (Van der Made, 2019). The species is a descendant of M. savini and differs in many characters, including smaller size (as indicated by the width of the first lobe of the M3) and a lower bifurcation between the brow tine and main beam (as indicated by the index 100Hext/DAPb).

 

TD8 stratigraphy

The stratigraphic distirbution of the large mammals around the Early-Middle Pleistocene boundary (Van der Made et al., 2017).

 

human dispersal

Human dispersal from Africa into Eurasia. Adapted from Van der Made (2013). The arid belt that runs through the Sahara and Middle East and the forested area of central Europe have been barriers for many species, including humans, during much of the time, but could be crossed at particular times. The dispesals of large mammals have been used to determine the moments when these barriers could be crossed. This model provides an explanation for the paradox that the humans with primitive Oldowan technology dispersed first in Europe and not those using the Achelean, which would be expected to be better colonizers as they had a more advanced technology.

 

Proboscidea NN fig4

The evolution and biogeography of the gomphotheres and allies (Van der Made, 2010.)

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  • Made, J. van der, 2010. Biostratigraphy - "Large Mammals". In: D. Höhne & W. Schwarz (eds) "Elefantentreich - Eine Fossilwelt in Europa". Landesamt für Denkmalpflege und Archälogie Sachsen-Anhalt & Landesmuseum für Vorgeschichte, Halle: 82-92.
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  • Made, J. van der, 2010. Megafauna extinctions in the wake of human dispersal. In: D. Höhne & W. Schwarz (eds) "Elefantentreich - Eine Fossilwelt in Europa". Landesamt für Denkmalpflege und Archälogie Sachsen-Anhalt & Landesmuseum für Vorgeschichte, Halle: 592-606.
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  • Made, J. van der & A. Mateos, 2010. Longstanding biogeographic patterns and the dispersal of early Homo out of Africa and into Europe. Quaternary International, 223-224: 195-200.
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  • Made, J. van der, J. Morales &  P. Montoya, 2006. Late Miocene turnover in the Spanish mammal record in a wider context. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 238: 228-246.
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  • Made, J. van der, 2005. Considerations on dispersals between Africa and Europe across the Strait of Gibraltar. In: J. Rodríguez Vidal,c. Finlayson & F. Giles Pacheco (eds.). Cuaternario Mediterraneo y poblamiento de hominidos. AEQUA & Gibraltar Museum, Gibraltar: 91-92.
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  • Made, J. van der, 2005. El Clima y su funcionamiento. In: E. Carbonell, X.P. Rodríguez, R. Sala, J. van der Made, C. Lorenzo, M. Mosquera, M. Vaquero, J. Rosell, J. Vallverdú, F. Burjachs, P. Hortolà. Homínidos: las primeras ocupaciones de los continentes. Capítulo 1 Introducción, Sección 1.3  El entorno natural. Ariel - Barcelona: 37-44.
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  • Made, J. van der, 2005. La fauna del Plio-Pleistoceno. In: E. Carbonell, X.P. Rodríguez, R. Sala, J. van der Made, C. Lorenzo, M. Mosquera, M. Vaquero, J. Rosell, J. Vallverdú, F. Burjachs, P. Hortolà. Homínidos: las primeras ocupaciones de los continentes.  Cápitulo 2 - África, Sección 2.3. Ariel, Barcelona: 71-102.
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  • Made, J. van der, 2005. La fauna. In: E. Carbonell, X.P. Rodríguez, R. Sala, J. van der Made, C. Lorenzo, M. Mosquera, M. Vaquero, J. Rosell, J. Vallverdú, F. Burjachs, P. Hortolà. Homínidos: las primeras ocupaciones de los continentes. Capítulo 3 - Asia; Sección 3.4. Ariel, Barcelona: 270-306.
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  • Made, J. van der, 2005. La fauna del Pleistoceno europeo. In: E. Carbonell, X.P. Rodríguez, R. Sala, J. van der Made, C. Lorenzo, M. Mosquera, M. Vaquero, J. Rosell, J. Vallverdú, F. Burjachs, P. Hortolà. Homínidos: las primeras ocupaciones de los continentes.  Capítulo 4 - Europa; Sección 4.4. Ariel: 394-432.
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  • Made, J. van der, 2005. La fauna de Australia y Nueva Guinea. La extinción de la megafauna. In: E. Carbonell, X.P. Rodríguez, R. Sala, J. van der Made, C. Lorenzo, M. Mosquera, M. Vaquero, J. Rosell, J. Vallverdú, F. Burjachs, P. Hortolà. Homínidos: las primeras ocupaciones de los continentes.  Capítulo  5 - Oceanía, Sección 5.5. Ariel, Barcelona: 578-582.
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  • Made, J. van der, 2005. La fauna americana. In: E. Carbonell, X.P. Rodríguez, R. Sala, J. van der Made, C. Lorenzo, M. Mosquera, M. Vaquero, J. Rosell, J. Vallverdú, F. Burjachs, P. Hortolà. Homínidos: las primeras ocupaciones de los continentes.  Capítulo 6 - América; Sección 6.2. Ariel: 611-625.
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  • Made, J. van der, 2005. Las extinciones del Pleistoceno-Holoceno. Cambio climátio o acción antrópica. In: E. Carbonell, X.P. Rodríguez, R. Sala, J. van der Made, C. Lorenzo, M. Mosquera, M. Vaquero, J. Rosell, J. Vallverdú, F. Burjachs, P. Hortolà. Homínidos: las primeras ocupaciones de los continentes.  Capítulo 4 - Europa; Sección 4.24. Ariel, Barcelona: 554-555.
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  • Made, J. van der, 2001. Biogeografía y colonización de Europa. La Vanguardia, lunes, 5 de noviembre, 2001: p. 29.
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  • Made, J. van der, 1999. Intercontinental relationship Europe-Africa and the Indian Subcontintent. In (G. Rössner & K. Heissig, eds.) The Miocene land mammals of Europe. Verlag Dr. Friedrich Pfeil, München: 457-472.
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  • BiochroM'97 1997. Synthèses et tableaux de corrélations. Mémoires et Travaux EPHE, Montpellier, 21: 769-805. (Biochrom'97 incluye a muchos autores, entre ellos J. van der Made.)
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  • Made, J. van der 1997. Intercontinental dispersal events, eustatic sea level and Early and Middle Miocene Stratigraphy. Mémoires et Travaux EPHE, Montpellier, 21: 75-81.
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  • Made, J. van der, 1996. Listriodontinae (Suidae, Mammalia), their evolution, systematics and distribution in time and space. Contributions to Tertiary and Quaternary Geology, 33(1-4): 3-254, 54 pp. 19 tables on a separate microfiche.
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  • Made, J. van der, 1996. Pre-Pleistocene land mammals from Crete. D. S. Reese (ed.): The Pleistocene and Holocene Fauna of Crete and its First Settlers. Monographs in World Archaeology, 28: 69-79.
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  • Made, J. van der, 1992. Migrations and climate. Courier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg, 153, 27-39.

 

4) Insular ecology and evolution

As I was a student of Paul Sondaar, it is only natural that I am intersted in the evolution of insular mammals. His model is published as a book chapter and as a paper in the journal Natural History and is illustrated by the three cartoons below. In fact it is only one of the ways endemic insular faunas may originate.

 

Sondaar fig 1

Insular faunas may originate during periods of low sea level, when the distance from the main land to the island is less (from Sondaar, 1977; Sondaar et al., 1978). Only the animals which are good swimmers, like hippos, deer and elephants, arive to the islands, while worse swimmers, like horses and carnivores do not reach the islands. 

 

Sondaar fig 2

Insular faunas become isolated and endemic when sea level rises and the distance from the main land to the island increases (from Sondaar, 1977; Sondaar et al., 1978). In the absence of carnivores, large mammals dwarf and small mammals become giants. Selection pressure is different and a number of adaptations evolve: low gear locomotion, seen in different proportions of the limb bones, high crowned teeth, stereo vision (eyes rotate forewards, the fields of view overlap and the animal can see depth), etc.

 

Sondaar fig 3

During the Pleistocene, ice ages became more severe and sea levels dropped deeper and deeper. When islands became connected to the main land, their endimic faunas went extinct  (from Sondaar, 1977; Sondaar et al., 1978). The person to the left is Paul Sondaar.

 

Sondaar's work on insular faunas and ecology was original in that it goes beyond calculations of species numbers and body size changes, and shows a relationship between insular ecology and morphological adaptations. This relationship caused these adaptations to evolve convergently in islands in different parts of the world. For instance the shortened metapodials, which evolved in Mediterranean islads and in the Ryukyu Islands (see graphs below). The degree to which metapodials became shortened is related to the presence or absence of carnivores. In addition the progressively more severe glaciations led to islands becoming less isolated and their successive faunas beoming less endemic as can be seen in the range charts for the different islands below.

 

Oschiri

Faunal evolution of Miocene island/achipelago of Tuscany, Corsica andSardinia (Van der Made, 2008).

Islands without carnivores

Endemic deer species from islands without carnivores, such as the Pleistocene Ryukyu Islands, Crete and Carpathos, have shortened metapodials compared to the main land species (Capreolus spp., Dama spp. Cervus elaphus) (Van der Made, 2005).

 

Islands with carnivores

Endemic deer species from islands with carnivores, such M. cazioti, M. sardus, Dama carburangelensis and Cervus elaphus siciliae, have metapodials that are little or not shortened compared to the main land species (Capreolus spp., Dama spp., Cervus elaphus, Eucladoceros and Megaceroides) (Van der Made, 2005).

 

  • Made, J. van der, 2005. La fauna del Plio-Pleistoceno. In: E. Carbonell, X.P. Rodríguez, R. Sala, J. van der Made, C. Lorenzo, M. Mosquera, M. Vaquero, J. Rosell, J. Vallverdú, F. Burjachs, P. Hortolà. Homínidos: las primeras ocupaciones de los continentes.  Cápitulo 2 - África, Sección 2.3. Ariel, Barcelona: 71-102.
Rangechart Sardinia

Range chart of the Pliocene and Quaternary mammals from Sardinia (Van der Made, 2005).

 

Range chart Sicily

Range chart of the Quaternary mammals from Sicily (Van der Made, 2005).

 

Ranche chart Crete red

Range chart of the Quaternary mammals from Crete (Van der Made, 2005).

 

  • Made, J. van der, 2005. La fauna. In: E. Carbonell, X.P. Rodríguez, R. Sala, J. van der Made, C. Lorenzo, M. Mosquera, M. Vaquero, J. Rosell, J. Vallverdú, F. Burjachs, P. Hortolà. Homínidos: las primeras ocupaciones de los continentes. Capítulo 3 - Asia; Sección 3.4. Ariel, Barcelona: 270-306.
Range chart Java

Range chart of the Quaternary mammals from Java (Van der Made, 2005).

 

Range chart Taiwan Ryukyu

Range chart of the Quaternary mammals from Taiwan and the Ryukyu Islands (Van der Made, 2005).

 

Range chart Japan

Range chart of the Quaternary mammals from Japan (Kyushu and Honshu) (Van der Made, 2005).