Zardoya San Sebastian Rafael

Foto de perfil del investigador Zardoya San Sebastian Rafael


I am interested in patterns, processes and mechanisms associated to the generation of biodiversity, a central question in Evolutionary Biology. My research is focused in determining the amount and type of genetic variation linked to speciation events and its relationship to morphological and behavioral adaptation. Thus, I infer statistically robust phylogenetic frameworks and perform comparative genomics that allow me reconstructing the evolution of morphological and behavioral traits, as well as understanding the historical generation of current biogeographical patterns. I am currently focused mainly on gastropod systematics (with particular emphasis on cone snails) and base phylogenetic inferences on complete mitochondrial genome sequence data as well as nuclear markers derived from next generation sequencing technologies. To complement the above-mentioned research, I have also active research in molecular evolution. I am interested in the evolution of gene families (particularly conotoxins through comparative transcriptomics), model selection, and the causes behind incorrect phylogenetic inferences.



cone species





Miembros de grupo


Iker Irisarri (Post-doctoral researcher Juan de la Cierva) — Cone snails comparative genomics/ transcriptomics


Samuel Abalde (Post-doctoral researcher) — West African cone snail phylogenomics and venomics


José Ramón Pardos (Graduate student FPI) — Cone snails comparative genomics/ transcriptomics


Yi Yang (Graduate student Ocean University of China) — Mitogenomics of Nassaridae




Publicaciones relevantes


For a full list see here


  •  J.E. Uribe, I. Irisarri, J. Templado, And R. Zardoya (2019) New patellogastropod mitogenomes help counteracting long-branch attraction in the deep phylogeny of gastropod mollusks.  Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 133: 12-23
  •  ​S. Abalde, M.J. Tenorio, J.E. Uribe, And R. Zardoya (2019) Conidae phylogenomics and evolution. Zool. Scri. 48: 194-214
  • ​​ S. Abalde, M.J. Tenorio, C.M.L. Afonso, And R. Zardoya (2018) Conotoxin Diversity in Chelyconus ermineus (Born, 1778) and the Convergent Origin of Piscivory in the Atlantic and Indo-Pacific Cones). Genome Biol. Evol. 10: 2643-2662
  •  S. Abalde, M.J. Tenorio, C.M.L. Afonso, J.E. Uribe, A.M. Echeverry, And R. Zardoya (2017) Phylogenetic relationships of cone snails endemic to Cabo Verde based on mitochondrial genomes. BMC Evol. Biol. 17: 231​
  •  J.E. Uribe, Y. Kano, J. Templado And R. Zardoya (2015) Mitogenomics of Vetigastropoda: insights into the evolution of pallial symmetry. Zool. Scri.  45: 145-159
  •  D. Osca, J. Templado And R. Zardoya (2015) Caenogastropod mitogenomics. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 93: 118-128
  •  E Kornobis, L Cabellos, F Aguilar, C Frías-López, J Rozas, J Marco And R. Zardoya (2015) TRUFA: a user-friendly web server for de novo RNA-seq analysis using cluster computing. Evol. Bioinfor. 11: 97
  •  F. Abascal, I. Irisarri And R. Zardoya (2014) Diversity and evolution of membrane intrinsic proteins Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA)-General Subjects 1840: 1468-1481    
  •  F. Abascal And R. Zardoya (2012) LRRC8 proteins share a common ancestor with pannexins, and may form hexameric channels involved in cell‐cell communication BioEssays 34: 551-560
  •  C. Grande, J. Templado And R. Zardoya (2008) Evolution of gastropod mitochondrial genome arrangements BMC Evol. Biol. 8:61
  •  F. Abascal, D. Posada, R. Knight And R. Zardoya (2006) Parallel evolution of the mitochondrial genetic code in insects PLoS Biology. 4: 711-718
  •  R. Zardoya (2005) Phylogeny and evolution of the Major Intrinsic Protein family Biol. Cell. 97: 397-414
  •  F. Abascal, R. Zardoya And D. Posada (2005) ProtTest: Selection of best-fit models of protein evolution Bioinformatics. 21: 2104-2105
  •  A. Meyer And R. Zardoya (2003) Recent Advances in the (Molecular) Phylogeny of Vertebrates. Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 34:311-338
  •  F. Abascal, R. Zardoya, M.J. Telford (2010) TranslatorX: multiple alignment of nucleotide sequences guided by amino acid translations Nucleic Acids Res. 38 Suppl: W7-W13




• Comparative genomics and adaptation in the study of a radiation in Macaronesian Islands: the marine snail Conus of Cabo Verde and its conotoxins as a model system.  

Grant: CGL2016 - 75255-C2-1-P  

Funding Agency: Ministry of Economy, Industry and Competitiveness (Madrid, Spain)

Duration: 30/12/2016 - 29/12/2019

Amount (€): 189 970

PI: Zardoya, R. 


•  Understanding the molecular basis of island radiations: Evolutionary study of conotoxins in marine snails Africonus of Cape Verde using transcriptomics.  

Grant: CGL2013-45211-C2-2-P

Funding Agency: Ministry of Economy, Industry and Competitiveness (Madrid, Spain)

Duration: 30/01/2014 - 29/12/2016   

 Amount (€): 130 000

PI: Zardoya, R


 • Molecular phylogeny of gastropod mollusks based on complete mitochondrial genomes.  

Grant: CGL2007 - 60954

Funding Agency: Ministry of Science & Technology

Duration: 01/10/2007 - 31/12/2010

Amount (€): 225 060

PI: Zardoya, R