Martínez-Solano González Iñigo

Foto de perfil del investigador Martínez-Solano González Iñigo


Denominación del grupo: Genética evolutiva y demografía integradora de anfibios / Evolutionary genetics and integrative demography of amphibians


Mi investigación aborda el estudio de la biodiversidad desde una perspectiva integradora que comprende el análisis de diferentes tipos de evidencia (faunística, demografía, datos morfológicos y moleculares) a varias escalas geográficas y temporales y con el objetivo final de aportar información relevante para gestionar de manera eficaz su conservación.

Mis aportaciones, que se centran en anfibios como modelo de estudio, incluyen fundamentalmente trabajos de sistemática molecular, filogeografía y genética del paisaje.



The role of dispersal in amphibian population connectivity and differentiation: an integrative approach (AMPH-CONNECT) (PID2020-116289GB-I00)



Dispersal is a key process in ecology and evolution, essential to predict the resilience of spatially structured populations in the face of anthropogenic threats like habitat loss and fragmentation. When followed by successful reproduction, dispersal results in gene flow and functional connectivity among breeding units, which shapes the evolutionary trajectories of populations and, ultimately, lineages, via effects on genetic drift and selection. Therefore, assessing patterns of dispersal and functional connectivity among populations in different species is urgently required to inform strategies for biodiversity conservation, especially in heavily urbanized areas. However, obtaining direct records of dispersal in wild populations is still a major challenge in ecological research. As a consequence, major knowledge gaps regarding the main internal and external factors shaping dispersal rates in non-model organisms hinder generalized application of management actions directed to improve and maintain connectivity. Building upon demographic inferences based on an integrative, long-term monitoring program of amphibian communities in Sierra de Guadarrama, we hypothesize an association between some life history traits like age at maturity or lifespan and spatial patterns of genetic structure driven by the dispersal behavior of different species, which warrants further investigation. Consequently, in this proposal we address the role of species-specific dispersal rates in generating patterns of population connectivity at different spatial and temporal scales in several species of Iberian amphibians. We approach these topics in an integrative framework focusing on a broad geographic and taxonomic context, ranging from the characterization of patterns of local dispersal (<10 km) in nine amphibian species, to the elaboration of regional connectivity maps for the same species in the region of Madrid (8000 km2) and to the delineation of a secondary contact hybrid zone (Triturus marmoratus/T. pygmaeus) combining individual marking and genomic data (thousands of high-quality SNPs derived from RAD-seq libraries). We expect to obtain robust estimates of genetic structure, gene flow and dispersal rates at the three study scales, which will unravel the main determinants of functional connectivity in amphibian populations, a topic of great importance in evolutionary biology and with broad applications for conservation.



Dursun, C.; Sánchez-Montes, G.; Özdemir,N.; Gül, S.; Martínez-Solano, I. 2023. Genetic data to describe the hybrid zone between Bufo bufo (Linnaeus, 1758) and Bufo verrucosissimus (Pallas, 1814) in northeastern Türkiye. Amphibia-Reptilia, 44: 441-455. DOI:


Dufresnes, C.; Ambu, J.; Galán, P.; Sequeira, F.; Viesca, L.; Choda, M.; Álvarez, A.; Alard, B.; Suchan, T.; Künzel, S.; Martínez-Solano, I.; Vences, M.; Nicieza, A. (in press). Delimiting phylogeographic diversity in the genomic era: application to an Iberian endemic frog. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. DOI:


Robbemont, J; van Veldhuijzen, S.; Allain, S.; Boyle, R.; Canestrelli, C.; O' Cathasaigh, E.; Cathrine, C.; Chiocchio, A.; Cogalniceanu, D.; Cvijanović, M.; Dufresnes, C.; Ennis, C.; Gandola, R.; Jablonski, D.; Julian, A.; Kranželić, D.; Lukanov, S.; Martínez-Solano, I.; Montgomery, R.; Naumov, B.; North, A.; Pabijan, M.; Puschendorf, R.; Salvi, D.; Schmidt, B.; Sotiropoulos, K.; Stanescu, F.; Stanković, D.; Stapelton, S.; Šunje, E.; Vacheva, E.; Zimić, A.; France, J.; Meilink, W.R.M.; Stark, T.; Struijk, R.; Theodoropoulos, A.; de Visser, M.C.; Wielstra, B. (in press). An extended mtDNA phylogeography for the alpine newt illuminates the provenance of introduced populations. Amphibia-Reptilia, 44: 347-361. DOI:


Velo Antón, G; Chambers, A; Poyarkov, Jr., N; Canestrelli, D; Bisconti, R; Naumov, B; Fernández Benéitez, MJ ; Borisenko, A; Martínez-Solano, I. 2023. COI barcoding provides reliable species identification in Western Palearctic amphibians. Amphibia-Reptilia, 44: 399-413. DOI:


Reyes-Moya, I.; Sánchez-Montes, G.; Babik, W.; Dudek.; Martínez-Solano, I. 2024. Assessing fine-scale pondscape connectivity with amphibian eyes: an integrative approach using genomic and capture-mark-recapture data. Molecular Ecology, 33: e17206. DOI:


Martínez-Gil, H.; Sánchez-Montes, G.; Montes-Gavilán, P.; Ugarte, G.; Martínez-Solano, I. 2023. Fine-scale functional connectivity of two syntopic pond-breeding amphibians with contrasting life-history traits. Conservation Genetics, 24: 361-374


Ambu, J.; Martínez-Solano, I.; Suchan, T.; Hernandez, A.; Wielstra, B.; Crochet, P.A.; Dufresnes, C. 2023. Genomic phylogeography illuminates deep cyto-nuclear discordances in midwife toads (Alytes). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 183: 107783. DOI:


Albero, L.; Martínez-Solano, I.; Hermida, M.; Vera, M.; Bécares, E. 2023. Open areas associated with traditional agriculture promote functional connectivity among amphibian demes in Mediterranean agrosystems. Landscape Ecology, 38: 3045-3059. DOI


Gutiérrez-Rodríguez, J.; Gonçalves, J.; Civantos, E.; Maia-Carvalho, B.; Caballero-Díaz, C.; Gonçalves, H.; Martínez-Solano, I. 2023. The role of habitat features in patterns of population connectivity of two Mediterranean amphibians in arid landscapes of central Iberia. Landscape Ecology, 38: 99-116. DOI:


Caballero-Díaz, C.; Sánchez-Montes, G.; Gómez, I.; Díaz-Zúñiga, A.; Martínez-Solano, I. 2022. Artificial water bodies as amphibian breeding sites: ecological traps or keystones for long-term population viability? The case of the common midwife toad (Alytes obstetricans) in central Spain. Amphibia-Reptilia, 43: 395-406. DOI:


Reyes-Moya, I.; Sánchez-Montes, G.; Martínez-Solano, I. 2022. Integrating dispersal, breeding and abundance data with graph theory for the characterization and management of functional connectivity in amphibian pondscapes. Landscape Ecology, 37: 3159-3177. DOI:


Mas Peinado, P.; García-París, M.; Jiménez-Ruiz, Y.; Valdeón, A.; Recuero, E.; Martínez-Solano, I.; Buckley, D.; Condamine, F. 2022. Geology-based and ecological processes of divergence between and within species of wingless darkling beetles. Journal of Biogeography, 49: 2281-2295. DOI:


Reinke, B.A.; Cayuela, H.; Janzen, F.; Lemaitre, J.-F.; Gaillard, J.-M.; Lawing, A.M.; Iverson, J.B.; Christiansen, D.G.; Martínez-Solano, I.; Sánchez-Montes, G.; Gutiérrez-Rodríguez, J., et al. 2022. Diverse aging rates in ectotherms provide insights for the evolution of aging and longevity. Science, 376: 1459-1466. DOI:


Enriquez-Urzelai, U.; Martínez-Freiría, F.; Freitas, I.; Perera, A.; Martínez-Solano, I.; Salvi, D.; Velo-Antón, G.; Kaliontzopoulou, A. 2022. Allopatric speciation, niche conservatism and gradual phenotypic change in the evolution of European green lizards. Journal of Biogeography, 49: 2193-2205. DOI:


Marques, A.; Hanson, J.; Camacho-Sanchez, M.; Martínez-Solano, I.; Moritz, C.; Tarroso, P.; Velo-Antón, G.; Verissimo, A.; Carvalho, S.B. 2022. Range-wide genomic scans and tests for selection identify non-neutral spatial patterns of genetic variation in a non-model amphibian species (Pelobates cultripes). Conservation Genetics, 23: 387-400. DOI:


Martínez-Gil, H.; Martínez-Freiría, F.; Perera, A.; Enriquez-Urzelai, U.; Martínez-Solano, I.; Velo-Antón, G.; Kaliontzopoulou, A. 2022. Morphological diversification of Mediterranean anurans: the roles of evolutionary history and climate. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 135: 462-477. DOI:


Cayuela, H.; Lemaitre, J.-F.; Léna, J.-P.; Ronget, V.; Martínez-Solano, I.; Muths, E.; Pilliod, D.S.; Schmidt, B.R.; Sánchez-Montes, G.; Gutiérrez-Rodríguez, J.; Pyke, G.; Grossenbacher, K.; Lenzi, O.; Bosch, J.; Beard, K.H.; Woolbright, L.L.; Lambert, B.A.; Green, D.M.; Garwood, J.M.; Fisher, R.N.; Matthews, K.; Dudgeon, D.; Lau, A.; Speybroeck, J.; Homan, R.; Jehle, R.; Baskale, E.; Mori, E.; Arntzen, J.W.; Joly, P.; Stiles, R.M.; Lannoo, M.J.; Maerz, J.C.; Lowe, W.H.; Valenzuela-Sánchez, A.; Christiansen, D.G.; Angelini, C.; Thirion, J.-M.; Merilä, J.; Colli, G.R.; Vasconcellos, M.M.; Boas, T.C.V.; Arantes, I.C.; Levionnois, P.; Reinke, B.A.; Vieira, C.; Marais, G.A.B.; Gaillard, J.-M.; Miller, D.A.W. 2022. Sex-related differences in aging rate are associated with sex chromosome system in amphibians. Evolution, 76: 346-356. DOI:


Albero, L.; Martínez-Solano, I.; Arias, A.; Lizana, E.; Bécares, E. 2021. Amphibian metacommunity responses to agricultural intensification in a Mediterranean landscape. Land 10, 924. DOI:


Palomar, G.; Dudek, K.; Arntzen, J.W.; Ficetola, G.F.; Jelic, D.; Jockusch, E.; Martínez-Solano, I.; Matsunami, M.; Migalska, M.; Shafer, H.B.; Vörös, J.; Waldman, B.; Wielstra, B.; Babik, W. 2021. Coevolution between MHC class I and Antigen-Processing Genes in salamanders. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 38: 5092-5106. DOI:


Dufresnes, C.; Brelsford, A.; Jeffries, D.L.; Mazepa, G.; Suchan, T.; Canestrelli, D., Nicieza, A.; Fumagalli, L.; Dubey, S.; Martínez-Solano, I.; Litvinchuk, S.N.; Vences, M.; Perrin, N.; Crochet, P.A. 2021. Mass of genes rather than master genes underlie the genomic architecture of amphibian speciation. PNAS 118: e2103963118. DOI:


Vörös, J.; Varga, Z.; Martínez-Solano, I.; Szabó, K. 2021. Mitochondrial DNA diversity of the alpine newt (Ichthyosaura alpestris) in the Carpathian Basin: evidence for multiple cryptic lineages associated with Pleistocene refugia. Acta Zoologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 67: 177-197. DOI:


Fernández de Larrea, I.; Sánchez-Montes, G.; Gutiérrez-Rodríguez, J.; Martínez-Solano, I. 2021. Reconciling direct and indirect estimates of functional connectivity in a Mediterranean pond-breeding amphibian. Conservation Genetics 22: 455-463. DOI:


Chiocchio, A.; Arntzen, J.W.; Martínez-Solano, I.; de Vries, W.; Bisconti, R.; Pezzarossa, A.; Maiorano, L.; Canestrelli, D. 2021. Reconstructing hotspots of genetic diversity from glacial refugia and subsequent dispersal in Italian common toads (Bufo bufo). Scientific Reports 11:260. DOI:


Antunes, B.; Velo-Antón, G.; Buckley, D.; Pereira, R.; Martínez-Solano, I. 2021. Physical and ecological isolation contribute to maintain genetic differentiation between fire salamander subspecies. Heredity 126: 776-789. DOI:


Burgon, J.D.; Vences, M.; Steinfartz, S.; Bogaerts, S.; Bonato, L.; Donaire Barroso, D.; Martínez-Solano, I.; Velo-Antón, G.; Vieites, D.R.; Mable, B.K.; Elmer, K.R. 2021. Phylogenomic inference of species and subspecies diversity in the Palearctic salamander genus Salamandra. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 157: 107063. DOI:


Hanson, J.O.; Veríssimo, A.; Velo-Antón, G.; Marques, A.; Camacho-Sanchez, M.; Martínez-Solano, I.; Gonçalves, H.; Sequeira, F.; Possingham, H.P.; Carvalho, S.B. 2021. Evaluating surrogates of genetic diversity for conservation planning. Conservation Biology 35: 634-642. DOI:


Sánchez-Montes, G.; Martínez-Solano, I.; Díaz-Paniagua, C.; Vilches, A.; Ariño, A.H.; Gomez-Mestre, I. 2020. Telomere attrition with age in a wild amphibian population. Biology Letters 16: 20200168. DOI:


Olarte, O.; Sánchez-Montes, G.; Martínez-Solano, I. 2020. Integrative demographic study of the Iberian painted frog (Discoglossus galganoi): inter-annual variation in the effective to census population size ratio, with insights on mating system and breeding success. Integrative Zoology 15: 498-510. DOI:


Speybroeck, J.; Beukema, W.; Dufresnes, C.; Fritz, U.; Jablonski, D.; Lymberakis, P.; Martínez-Solano, I.; Razzetti, E.; Vamberger, M.; Vences, M.; Vörös, J.; Crochet, P.-A. 2020. Species list of the European herpetofauna – update by the Taxonomic Committee of the Societas Europaea Herpetologica. Amphibia-Reptilia 41: 139-189. DOI:


Camacho-Sanchez, M.; Velo Antón, G.; Hanson, J.; Verissimo, A.; Martínez-Solano, I.; Marques, A.; Moritz, C.; Carvalho, S.B. 2020. Comparative assessment of range-wide patterns of genetic diversity and structure with SNPs and microsatellites: A case study with Iberian amphibians. Ecology and Evolution 10: 10353-10363. DOI:


Hanson, J.O.; Marques, A.; Veríssimo, A.; Camacho-Sanchez, M.; Velo-Antón, G.; Martínez-Solano, I.; Carvalho, S.B. 2020. Conservation planning for adaptive and neutral evolutionary processes. Journal of Applied Ecology 57: 2159-2169. DOI:


Capellà Marzo, B.; Sánchez-Montes, G.; Martínez-Solano, I. 2020. Contrasting demographic trends and asymmetric migration rates in a spatially structured amphibian population. Integrative Zoology 15: 482-497. DOI:


Dufresnes, C.; Nicieza, A.G.; Litvinchuk, S.; Rodrigues, N.; Jeffries, D.L.; Vences, M.; Perrin, N.; Martínez-Solano, I. 2020. Are glacial refugia hotspots of speciation and cyto-nuclear discordances? Answers from the genomic phylogeography of Spanish common frogs. Molecular Ecology, 29: 986-1000.


Arntzen, J.W.; Canestrelli, D.; Martínez-Solano, I. 2020. Environmental correlates of the European common toad hybrid zone. Contributions to Zoology 89: 270-281. DOI:


Dufresnes, C.; Martínez-Solano, I. 2020. Hybrid zone genomics supports candidate species in Iberian Alytes obstetricans. Amphibia-Reptilia, 41: 105-112. Índice SCI: 0.943. Nº citas: 0. Cuartil: 3 (Zoology). DOI:


Freitas, I.; Ursenbacher, S.; Mebert, K.; Zinenko, O.; Schweiger, S.; Wüster, W.; Brito, J.C.; Crnobrnja-Isailovic, J.; Halpern, B.; Fahd, S.; Santos, X.; Pleguezuelos, J.M.; Joger, U.; Orlov, N.; Mizsei, E.; Lourdais, O.; Zuffi, M.A.L.; Strugariu, A.; Zamfirescu, S.R.; Martínez-Solano, I.; Velo-Antón, G.; Kaliontzopoulou, A.; Martínez-Freiría, F. 2020. Evaluating taxonomic inflation: towards evidence-based species delimitation in Eurasian vipers (Serpentes: Viperinae). Amphibia-Reptilia 41: 285-311. DOI:


Dufresnes, C.; Pribille, M.; Fumagalli, L.; Gonçalves, H.; Amat, F.; Crochet, P.A.; Dubey, S.; Perrin, N.; Vences, M.; Martínez-Solano, I. 2020. Integrating hybrid zone analyses in species delimination: lessons from two anuran radiations of the Western Mediterranean. Heredity, 124: 423-438. Índice SCI: 3.179. Nº citas: 2. Cuartil: 1 (Ecology). DOI:


Caballero-Díaz, C.; Sánchez-Montes, G.; Butler, H.M.; Vredenburg, V.T.; Martínez-Solano, I. 2020. The role of artificial breeding sites in amphibian conservation: a case study in rural areas in central Spain. Herpetological Conservation and Biology 15: 87-104.


Sequeira, F.; Bessa-Silva, A.; Tarroso, P.; Sousa-Neves, T.; Vallinoto, M.; Gonçalves, H.; Martínez-Solano, I. 2020. Discordant patterns of introgression across a narrow hybrid zone between two cryptic lineages of an Iberian endemic newt. Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 33: 202-216. Índice SCI: 2.541. Nº citas: 0. Cuartil: 2 (Ecology; Evolutionary Biology). DOI:


Cayuela, H.; Valenzuela-Sánchez, A.; Teulier, L.; Martínez-Solano, I.; Léna, J.-P.; Merilä, J.; Muths, E.; Shine, R.; Quay, L.; Denoël, M.; Clobert, J.; Schmidt, B.R. 2020. Determinants and consequences of dispersal in vertebrates with complex life cycles: a review of pond-breeding amphibians. Quarterly Review of Biology, 95: 1-36. Índice SCI: 3.519. Nº citas: 0. Cuartil: 1 (Biología). DOI: